Action Plan for Australian Marsupials and Monotremes

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Wildlife Australia, December 1996
ISBN 0 6422 1395 X

Recovery Outline - Barrow Island Euro

Recovery Outline

Barrow Island Euro

1 Family: Macropodidae

2 Scientific name: Macropus robustus isabellinus (Gould, 1842)

3 Common name: Barrow Island Euro

4 Conservation status: Vulnerable: D2

5 Other subspecies:

Originally described by Gould (1842) as a new species Osphranter isabellinus. Now regarded as a subspecies of the Euro or Common Wallaroo (Poole 1995). The nominate subspecies is LR(lc).

6 Former distribution:

Known only from Barrow Island, off the Pilbara coast of WA.

7 Current distribution:

Barrow Island Barrow Island (WA).

8 Habitat:

Spinifex grasslands and coastal areas of Barrow Island. Tends to be concentrated in the deeply dissected country in the central west of the island and less abundant on the more sandy south end of the island. Limited areas of floodout flats are important feeding areas being the only major habitat dominated by grasses other than Triodia (Short and Turner 1991).

9 Reasons for decline:

Probably has not declined in recent times, however it occurs at lower densities on Barrow Island than on the adjacent mainland. Short and Turner (1991) suggest that this is due to the lack of an abundant supply of fresh water, lack of introduced grasses, and forage that is not kept at an early seral stage by regular burning (Barrow Island is a producing oilfield). Barrow Island Euros have recently been found to suffer from anaemia and poor condition and this may be related to nutritional stress (S.D. Bradshaw, UWA Zoology Department, pers. comm.). Total population size on Barrow Island is estimated at 1 800 individuals.

10 Additional studies required for recovery objectives and actions to be defined:

10.1 Determine extent of nutritional stress among population.

10.2 Determine if oil field management can be modified to improve the condition of the euro population.

10.3 Continue with long term spotlight monitoring transects for euros and analyse data.

11 Recovery objectives:

To maintain population at current levels.

12 Management actions completed or under way:

12.1 PhD study (UWA) under way to determine extent of nutritional stress.

12.2 Spotlight transects undertaken every two years since 1965.

13 Management actions required:

13.1 Determine if oil field management (rehabilitation techniques, use of fire etc) can be modified to enhance the condition of the euro population.

13.2 Examine and analyse spotlight transect data. Determine if modifications to route need to be made.

14 Organisation(s) responsible for conservation of species:

WA Department of Conservation and Land Management.

15 Other organisations or individuals involved:

The University of Western Australia, West Australian Petroleum Pty Ltd. (WAPET).

16 Staff and financial resources required for recovery to be carried out:

Staff resources required - WA CALM 0.05 Research Scientist
UWA 1.0 PhD student

Financial resources required - logistic support from WAPET (air transport, accommodation)

Total $ nil

References:

Gould J. 1841. Descriptions of four new species of kangaroos. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1841, 80-83.

Poole W.E. 1995. Common Wallaroo Macropus robustus. Pp. 347-349 in R. Strahan (Ed.) The Mammals of Australia. Reed Books, Chatswood, NSW.

Short J. and Turner B. 1991. Distribution and abundance of Spectacled Hare-wallabies and Euros on Barrow Island, Western Australia. Wildlife Research 18, 412-419.

 

Recovery Outline

Black-footed Rock-wallaby (MacDonnell Ranges race)

1 Family: Macropodidae

2 Scientific name: Petrogale lateralis MacDonnell Ranges race

3 Common name: Black-footed Rock-wallaby (MacDonnell Ranges race), MacDonnell Ranges Rock-wallaby, Warru

4 Conservation status: Vulnerable: A1a.b,B2a,b+3a,b,c

5 Other subspecies:

One of two chromosomal races and four subspecies of P. lateralis. All taxa within P. lateralis are Vulnerable, except for P. l. purpureicollis which is Lower Risk (least concern).

6 Former distribution:

Widespread in central desert regions of the NT, SA and WA. South from The Granites (NT), Davenport/ Murchison Ranges, MacDonnell and Petermann Ranges, Uluru (Ayers Rock), Kata Tjuta (Olgas) into the north-west of SA (Musgrave, Mann and Everard Ranges) and westwards through WA from Kintore in the north, south-west to around Laverton.

SA: Anangu Pitjantjatjara Lands (Central Ranges and far northern part of Great Victoria Desert Bio-regions) and Davenport Ranges (western side of Lake Eyre-Stony Plains Bio-region). In the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Lands, Finlayson (1961) noted that whereas in 1932-35 P. lateralis "was one of the commonest mammals...with swarming populations in many of the rocky outliers of the main ranges", by 1950-56 it had become rare and persisted in only a few scattered locations. The Davenport Ranges population has only recently been discovered (Eldridge et al. 1994) and there is only evidence of one small colony of up to 50 individuals despite thorough searches in the rest of the range system.

7 Current distribution:

Distribution and abundance declined over most of range

Distribution and abundance declined over most of range. Populations extant in the east and western MacDonnell Ranges (NT); scattered populations in the Warburton region (WA) and only one small colony now known in north-western SA and another in the Davenport Ranges west of Lake Eyre. Disappeared from the Granites, to the south-west of the Townsend Ridges (WA). Recent extinction (post 1979) in Uluru - Kata Tjuta National Park. Status unclear in the Petermann Ranges (NT) and north-western SA.

SA: In the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Lands, only one very small colony known near New Well (north of Ernabella). All other known former colony sites visited now extinct. There is still a possibility of additional extant colonies being found but this appears slight with the effort put in to date (including extensive interviews with Anangu). In the Davenport Ranges, only one small colony of up to 50 individuals known despite several recent searches.

None of the populations in WA and SA are in conservation reserves. In the NT occurs in the following conservation reserves: Watarrka, Finke Gorge, Simpsons Gap, Ruby Gap, Arltunga, Alice Springs Telegraph Station, Trephina Gorge, Emily and Jessie Gap, Kuyunba, West MacDonnell and Davenport/Murchison.

Also occurs on Central Australian Aboriginal Reserve (WA - Ngaanyatjarra Council), Anangu Pitjantjatjara Lands (SA), Aboriginal land trusts administered by the Central Land Council (NT) and grazing leases in NT and SA.

Note: The map shows distribution of both chromosomal races of Petrogale lateralis. This Recovery Outline considers only the MacDonnell Ranges race (central Australia).

8 Habitat:

Granite outcrops, sandstone and quartzite cliffs in ranges, gabbro cliffs and scree slopes with sheltered steep cliffs, caves, rock-piles and/or ledges. Formerly occupied small lateritic breakaways and caves.

9 Reasons for decline:

Presumed predation by foxes. Decline correlates with time of arrival of foxes after establishment of rabbits. Circumstantial evidence from work on P. l. lateralis in the WA Wheatbelt and P. rothschildi in the Dampier Archipelago also strongly supports the contention that foxes have played a major role in this decline. Habitat modification by, and competition for food with, rabbits may also have contributed significantly to the decline from several sites. Other threats include predation by feral cats, and changes in fire regimes.

10 Additional studies required for recovery objectives and actions to be defined:

10.1 Surveys to establish distribution and status of populations in the NT and SA.

10.2 Study of genetics of populations across the central Australian region, particularly isolated populations, as a basis for re-introduction projects.

10.3 Monitor recruitment into fox-baited colony sites versus non-baited sites.

10.4 Determine home ranges and relative habitat use at selected colonies (baited and unbaited).

11 Recovery objectives:

To reverse current decline and to maintain and increase extant populations in WA, SA and the NT. If feasible, translocate rock-wallabies to re-establish colonies at previously occupied sites.

12 Management actions completed or under way:

12.1 Fire management in conservation reserves in the MacDonnell Ranges and Davenport/Murchison area.

12.2 Survey of rock-wallabies in Warburton Region (Pearson 1992).

12.3 Rock-wallaby surveys of Anangu Pitjantjatjara Lands partially completed and management options for New Well colony (fox baiting and fox, dingo and cat shooting) discussed favourably with local traditional owners (but no funding provided).

12.4 Davenport Ranges surveyed for further colonies and feral donkeys shot.

12.5 Preliminary genetic study (M. Eldridge and A. Wilson, Macquarie University).

13 Management actions required:

13.1 Fox and feral cat control around many populations and monitor recruitment.

13.2 Aboriginal involvement in management of populations, particularly on Aboriginal land and reserves, Aboriginal-owned grazing leases and freehold land.

13.3 Further discussion of management on Anangu Pitjantjatjara Lands needed with traditional owners and fox baiting needs to be funded, initiated and maintained.

13.4 Pastoralist involvement in the management of populations on grazing leases.

13.5 Enlargement of conservation reserves in the MacDonnell Ranges into a comprehensive and manageable system.

13.6 Fire management around some populations.

13.7 Some rabbit control around populations, particularly in isolated granite outcrop situations.

13.8 Enhancement of Alice Springs residents' awareness of urban populations.

14 Organisation(s) responsible for conservation of species:

Parks and Wildlife Commission of the Northern Territory, SA Department of Environment and Natural Resources, WA Department of Conservation and Land Management.

15 Other organisations or individuals involved:

Anangu Pitjantjatjara, Ngaanyatjarra Council, Macquarie University, Kidman Pastoral Co.

16 Staff and financial resources required for recovery to be carried out:

Financial resources required 1997-2001 -

Action agency ESP Total Cost
Collate records $3 640 $13 900 $17 526
Survey of selected sites $18 060 $25 500 $43 614
Publish report on conservation $500 $500
Establish monitoring and predator control program
in SA and WA (one year only) $23 500
Implement predator control program for SA and WA
and continue monitoring (4 years) $180 000

Total $45 700 $219 400

Total $265 100

References:

Eldridge M.D.B., Bell J.N., Pearson D.J. and Close R.L. 1992. Identification of rock-wallabies in the Warburton Region of Western Australia as Petrogale lateralis MacDonnell ranges race. Australian Mammalogy 15, 115-119.

Finlayson H.H. 1961. On central Australian mammal. IV The distribution and status of cental Australian species. Records of the South Australian Museum 14, 141-191.

Lindner D.A. 1966. Wildlife survey of the Petermann Ranges, NT. Report to the Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory (unpublished).

Pearson D. 1992. Distribution and abundance of the Black-footed Rock-wallaby in the Warburton region of Western Australia. Wildlife Research 19, 605-622.

 

Recovery Outline

Black-footed Rock-wallaby (W Kimberley race)

1 Family: Macropodidae

2 Scientific name: Petrogale lateralis western Kimberley race

3 Common name: Black-footed Rock-wallaby (W Kimberley race)

4 Conservation Status: Vulnerable: B1+2,C2a

5 Other subspecies:

One of two chromosomal races and four subspecies of P. lateralis. All are Vulnerable except P. l. purpureicollis which is LR(lc).

6 Former distribution:

Known only from the Edgar Range, Erskine Range and possibly the Grant Range and nearby areas of the west Kimberley of WA.

7 Current distribution:

The map shows distribution of both chromosomal races As above. Extent of decline, if any, unknown.

Note: The map shows distribution of both chromosomal races of Petrogale lateralis. This Recovery Outline considers only the western Kimberley race (WA).

8 Habitat:

Sandstone outcrops, rock piles and cliffs.

9 Reasons for decline:

No data available to indicate whether it has declined or not. Much of the habitat in the Edgar Range appears marginal, containing few and mostly shallow shelter sites. Common at Logues Spring, but much of the main gorge at this site is heavily grazed by cattle which may impact negatively on the rock-wallabies in the short- or long-term.

Foxes occasionally sighted in the Edgar Range. Foxes are responsible for the decline of other subspecies and races of P. lateralis. This taxon may be vulnerable to fox predation and close monitoring is required.

10 Additional studies required for recovery objectives and actions to be defined:

Survey to clarify distribution of rock-wallabies in the southern and western Kimberley, including taxonomically unknown populations in the Grant Range and at Mt Wynne.

11 Recovery objectives:

11.1 Ensure that known populations do not decline.

11.2 Control foxes around populations as needed.

11.3 Involve local landholders and Aboriginal communities in the management of populations.

12 Management actions completed or under way:

12.1 Preliminary genetic study (M. Eldridge and A. Wilson, Macquarie University).

12.2 Preliminary survey of populations in area (Pearson and Eldridge, unpublished).

12.3 Further genetic sampling of Edgar Ranges, Erskine Range and Done Hill populations (Eldridge and Pearson, unpublished).

13 Management actions required:

13.1 Survey of south and west Kimberley to establish range and abundance including genetic sampling.

13.2 Monitoring of fox abundance and fox control as needed.

14 Organisation(s) responsible for conservation of species:

WA Department of Conservation and Land Management.

15 Other organisations or individuals involved:

Macquarie University.

16 Staff and financial resources required for recovery to be carried out:

Financial resources required - 1996-2000

Action Agency ESP Total cost
Survey (distribution and genetics) $3 000 $6 000 $9 000
Monitoring of populations (every second year) $3 000 $8 000 $11 000
Fox monitoring and control $5 000 $50 000 $55 000

Total $11 000 $64 000

Total 1996-2000 $75 000

References:

Eldridge M.D.B., Close R.L. and Johnston P.G. 1991. Chromosomal rearrangements in rock-wallabies, Petrogale (Marsupalia: Macropodidae). IV. G-banding analysis of the Petrogale lateralis complex. Australian Journal of Zoology 39, 621-627.

 

Recovery Outline

Recherche Rock-wallaby

1 Family: Macropodidae

2 Scientific name: Petrogale lateralis hacketti Thomas, 1905

3 Common name: Recherche Rock-wallaby

4 Conservation status: Vulnerable: D2

5 Other subspecies:

One of four described subspecies and two races of P. lateralis. All are Vulnerable except P. l. purpureicollis which is LR(lc).

6 Former distribution:

Restricted to three islands (Mondrain - 810 ha, Wilson - 90 ha and Westall - 70 ha) in the Archipelago of the Recherche off the southern coast of WA.

7 Current distribution:

The Archipelago is a nature reserve As above. The Archipelago is a nature reserve.

8 Habitat:

Coastal cliffs and rocky outcrops.

9 Reasons for decline:

No decline recorded. No current threats, although due to its restricted distribution and small population size is vulnerable to disturbance by chance events, such as the establishment of feral predators or competitors.

10 Additional studies required for recovery objectives and actions to be defined:

10.1 Base-line survey and genetic sampling.

11 Recovery objectives:

11.1 Maintain current range of subspecies.

12 Management actions completed or under way:

12.1 Reservation of islands in Recherche Archipelago NR.

13 Management actions required:

13.1 Monitor existing populations every five years.

13.2 Collection of further genetic samples from each population (not all islands have been sampled).

14 Organisation(s) responsible for conservation of species:

WA Department of Conservation and Land Management.

15 Other organisations or individuals involved:

None.

16 Staff and financial resources required for recovery to be carried out:

Financial resources required - 1996 to 2001

Action agency ESP Total Cost
Monitor population $5 000 $20 000 $25 000
Genetic sampling $0 $5 000 $5 000

Total $5 000 $25 000

Total 1996-2001 $30 000

References:

Kinnear J., Onus M. and Bromilow B. 1984. Foxes, feral cats and rock wallabies. SWANS 14, 3-8.

Serventy V.N. 1953. Part 4, Mammals. Pp. 40-45 in J.H. Willis (Ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche. Australian Geographical Society Report No. 1 (Part 4). Australian Geographical Society, Melbourne.

 

Recovery Outline

Black-flanked Rock-wallaby

1 Family: Macropodidae

2 Scientific name: Petrogale lateralis lateralis Gould, 1842

3 Common name: Black-flanked Rock-wallaby, Black-footed
Rock-wallaby (S+central WA)

4 Conservation Status: Vulnerable: B1+2a,b,c,e,C2a

5 Other subspecies:

One of four described subspecies of P. lateralis and chromosomally distinct from two other races of P. lateralis. All are Vulnerable except P. l. purpureicollis, which is LR(lc).

6 Former distribution:

Confined to central and southern WA: in suitable habitat in the western Pilbara inland to at least the Calvert Range, southwards to the Wheatbelt and Darling Range (apparently absent from forested country) and to the southern coastline; Salisbury, Depuch and Barrow Islands.

7 Current distribution:

Calvert Range in the Little Sandy Desert

Disappeared from most of its former distribution. Extant in the Calvert Range in the Little Sandy Desert, where numbers are extremely small; Cape Range; six populations in the Wheatbelt (Nangeen Hill, Mt Caroline, Mt Stirling, Sales Rock, Querkin Rocks and Tutakin Rock); Barrow and Salisbury Islands. Recent extinctions on Depuch Island, Querkin Rocks (but translocations made in 1986) and the Murchison River gorge in Kalbarri National Park (c. 1990).

Includes Nangeen Hill, Mt Stirling, Mt Caroline, Tutakin, Barrow Island and Recherche Archipelago (Salisbury Island) Nature Reserves and Cape Range National Park. Populations at Sales Rock, Querkin Rocks and Tutakin Rock are also on private property.

8 Habitat:

Granite outcrops, sandstone cliffs, coastal limestone cliffs, gabbro rock piles on Depuch Island.

9 Reasons for decline:

Predation by foxes (Kinnear et al. 1988) known to have had a serious impact on Wheatbelt and Depuch Island populations and presumed to be the main cause of local extinction of most other populations. Other possible threats include predation by feral cats and degradation of habitat due to the grazing activities of domestic and wild introduced herbivores (primarily sheep and rabbits).

10 Additional studies required for recovery objectives and actions to be defined:

10.1 Study of population genetics of Wheatbelt populations as a precursor to re-introductions.

10.2 Surveys to clarify taxonomy, distribution and status of populations in Fortescue River area and the Barlee Range.

11 Recovery objectives:

11.1 Maintain current distribution through fox control and population monitoring.

11.2 Re-introduce to selected sites where fox control is in place.

11.3 Recover Calvert Range population (last remaining in western desert) through fox control and when numbers are high enough, translocate to Depuch Island.

12 Management actions completed or under way:

12.1 Protection of much of current habitat in conservation reserves.

12.2 Regular 1080 baiting operations for foxes at several sites, including Nangeen, Tutakin, Mt Stirling and Mt Caroline NRs, part of Cape Range NP and Townsend Ridges.

12.3 Preliminary genetic study (M. Eldridge and A. Wilson, Macquarie University).

12.4 Fox control and population monitoring at Calvert Range (supported by CRA Exploration)

12.5 Monitoring of Yardie Creek (Cape Range NP) population by tour operators.

12.6 Feral goat control in the Murchison River gorge at Kalbarri NP.

13 Management actions required:

13.1 Fire management around some colonies.

13.2 Ongoing fox control around existing and future populations.

13.3 Ongoing feral goat control in Cape Range National Park.

13.4 Translocations to sites within former distribution.

14 Organisation(s) responsible for conservation of species:

WA Department of Conservation and Land Management.

15 Other organisations or individuals involved:

Perth Zoo, Macquarie University, CRA Exploration.

16 Staff and financial resources required for recovery to be carried out:

Financial resources required 1997-2001-

Action agency ESP/external Total Cost
Fire management $10 000 $ $
Fox control (12 sites) *$100 000 *$500 000 $
Feral goat control (Cape Range NP) $ $150 000 $
Translocations $ $40 000 $

Total $110 000 $690 000

* fox control at some sites benefits other species

Total $800 000

References:

Kinnear J.E., Onus M.L. and Bromilow R.N. 1988. Fox control and rock wallaby population dynamics. Australian Wildlife Research 15, 435-450.

 

Recovery Outline

Pearson Island Rock-wallaby

1 Family: Macropodidae

2 Scientific name: Petrogale lateralis pearsoni Thomas, 1922

3 Common name: Pearson Island Rock-wallaby

4 Conservation status: Vulnerable: D2

5 Other subspecies:

One of four described subspecies and two chromosomal races of P. lateralis. All are Vulnerable except P. l. purpureicollis, which is LR(lc).

6 Former distribution:

Pearson Island (SA), main (north) island only, ca. 300 animals.

7 Current distribution:

Pearson Island

Pearson Island, now about 300 animals on the main (north) island, plus about 190 on the south island after an accidental introduction. There are also about 200+ animals on each of Wedge and Thistle Islands after introductions there in the 1970s and these populations are still increasing.

8 Habitat:

Coastal cliffs especially where caves, boulder piles and water seepages occur in close proximity.

9 Reasons for decline:

Has not declined. No current threats, though limited distribution makes the subspecies vulnerable to disturbance or chance events.

10 Additional studies required for recovery objectives and actions to be defined:

None.

11 Recovery objectives:

Establish and maintain at least five populations (total) with no fewer than a total of 1200 individuals.

12 Management actions completed or under way:

Introduced successfully to 3 925 ha Thistle Island in 1974 and 1975, and to 947 ha Wedge Island in 1975; these populations expanding in range and abundance.

13 Management actions required:

13.1 Monitor Pearson Island population using established transects.

13.2 Assess distribution and abundance of populations on Wedge and Thistle Islands using standard survey techniques.

13.3 Study impacts of introduced rock-wallabies on south and central Pearson Island.

14 Organisation(s) responsible for conservation of species:

SA Department of Environment and Natural Resources.

15 Other organisations or individuals involved:

None.

16 Staff and financial resources required for recovery to be carried out:

Low priority. Action to be conducted when opportunities arise.

References:

Robinson A.C. 1980. Notes on the mammals and reptiles of Pearson, Dorothee and Greenly Islands, South Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 104, 93-99.

Thomas I.M. and Delroy L.B. 1971. Pearson Island expedition (1969) 4. The Pearson Island Wallaby. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 96, 143-145.