Action Plan for Australian Marsupials and Monotremes

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Wildlife Australia, December 1996
ISBN 0 6422 1395 X

Recovery Outline - Woylie


Taxon Summary


1 Family: Potoroidae

2 Scientific name: Bettongia penicillata ogilbyi (Waterhouse, 1841)

3 Common name: Woylie, Brush-tailed Bettong

4 Conservation status: Lower Risk (conservation dependent)

5 Other subspecies:

Sharman et al. (1980) recognised three subspecies of B. penicillata but one, B. p. tropica, is now recognised as a full species (see Wakefield 1967) and is Endangered. B. p .penicillata, from the south-eastern mainland, is Extinct.

6 Former distribution:

B. p. penicillata and B. p. ogilbyi formerly occurred in suitable habitat over much of the mainland south of the tropics. Recorded from south-west WA, across southern Australia (including St. Francis Island near Ceduna) to the Great Dividing Range (Finlayson 1958). Oral history research involving Aboriginal people has confirmed that the species also ranged over much of the Great Sandy and Gibson Deserts in WA and into the Tanami Desert of the NT (Burbidge and Fuller 1984, Burbidge et al. 1988).

7 Current distribution:

Population numbers and range have decreased dramatically during this century

Population numbers and range have decreased dramatically during this century, it being recorded as extant only in the "western Centre" and south-west WA by Finlayson (1958). It had disappeared from central Australia by 1960 (Burbidge et al. 1988). The St Francis Island population (of B. p. penicillata) became extinct some time between the 1920s and 1971.

Despite unconfirmed sightings on the Eyre Peninsula in the 1980s (of B. p. penicillata), it is believed the species survives naturally only as populations of B. p. ogilbyi in south-west WA.

Natural populations remain at Dryandra Woodland, Perup NR (and adjacent areas as far as Kingston Forest and near Lake Muir), and at Tutanning NR. Sightings in Fitzgerald River NP have not been confirmed, despite extensive trapping.

Translocated populations occur at Batalling Forest, Boyagin NR and Julimar CP (WA) and Venus Bay Island A, Wedge Island, St Peter Island, mainland Venus Bay CP and Yookamurra Sanctuary (SA). Twenty translocations into areas within the northern Jarrah forest of WA took place in 1995 as part of research into the effectiveness of different rates of aerial fox baiting (Operation Foxglove), and another translocation took place to Karakamia Sanctuary. These translocations are too recent for their success to be measured.

8 Habitat:

Formerly inhabited a wide range of habitats from desert spinifex grasslands to forests. Now restricted to forests and open woodlands in WA and mallee shrublands in SA with clumped low understorey of tussock grasses or low woody scrub.

9 Reasons for decline:

Fox and cat predation and habitat destruction and alteration, including changes to fire regimes, competition with domestic and feral introduced herbivores.

Relict populations survived where shrubs of Gastrolobium containing fluoroacetate (1080 poison) provide suitable shelter, presumably reducing the impact of foxes, and possibly also reducing competition from rabbits and stock. Woylies are only recovering in areas where foxes are controlled.

10 Additional studies required for management objectives and actions to be defined:

None, Recovery Plan has been prepared and implemented (Start et al. 1996).

11 Management objectives:

The Recovery Team has recommended that the two relevant State conservation agencies write or review monitoring programs to ensure that the management necessary to maintain the Woylie as a Lower Risk (conservation dependent) species is implemented and effective. The plans should:

- provide for further improvement in the conservation status of Woylies; and

- make a commitment to address any significant decline detected by the monitoring programs.

12 Management actions completed or under way:

The actions listed in the Recovery Plan have been completed. The recovery team used IUCN (1994) criteria to assess the status of the woylie in 1995 and as it had been in 1990. It concluded that the species did not meet any of the criteria for Vulnerable at either date, thus meeting the five-year rule for moving taxa from a category of higher threat to a category of lower threat and recommended downlisting to LR(cd).

13 Management actions required:

As recommended by the Recovery Team (above).

14 Organisation(s) responsible for conservation of species:

WA Department of Conservation and Land Management (CALM), SA Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

15 Other organisations or individuals involved:

Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Earth Sanctuaries Ltd (Yookamurra Sanctuary), Jackie Courtenay (Edith Cowan University).

16 Staff and financial resources required for monitoring to be carried out:

Financial resources required - 1996-2001


Exotic predator control $175 000 (benefits other species as well)
Population monitoring/survey $10 000 (other species monitored at same time)
Range extensions/translocations $20 000

Employment of scientist $250 000
Exotic predator control $29 000
Population monitoring/survey/translocations $71 000

Total $555 000


Burbidge A.A. and Fuller P.J. 1984. Finding out about desert mammals. SWANS 14, 9-13.

Burbidge A.A., Johnson K.A., Fuller P.J. and Southgate R.I. 1988. Aboriginal knowledge of the mammals of the central deserts of Australia. Australian Wildlife Research 15, 9-39.

Finlayson H.H. 1958. On central Australian mammals (with notice of species from adjacent tracts). Part III. The Potorinae. Records of the South Australian Museum 13, 235-302.

IUCN 1994. IUCN Red List categories. Prepared by the IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Sharman G.B., Murtagh C.E. and Weaver C.M. 1980. The chromosomes of a Rat-kangaroo attributable to Bettongia tropica (Marsupalia: Macropodidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 28, 59-63.

Start A.N., Burbidge A.A. and Armstrong D. 1996. Woylie Recovery Plan. Second edition 1994-1995. Wildlife Management Program No. 16. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth.

Wakefield N.A. 1967. Some taxonomic revision in the Australian marsupial genus Bettongia (Macropodidae), with description of a new species. Victorian Naturalist 84, 8-22.


Taxon Summary

Kangaroo Island Echidna

1 Family: Tachyglossidae

2 Scientific name: Tachyglossus aculeatus multiaculeatus (Rothschild, 1905)

3 Common name: Kangaroo Island Echidna

4 Conservation status: Lower Risk (near threatened): b

5 Past range and abundance:

Kangaroo Island (SA), common and occupying all of the island (4216 km2).

6 Present range and abundance:

Kangaroo Island (SA) Kangaroo Island (SA), common and occupying all of the island, although probably occurring at a slightly lower density than pre-European settlement due to habitat clearance for agriculture.

7 Habitat:

Forests, woodlands, scrubs and heaths throughout the island.

8 Current threats:

None known. The main "predator" of echidnas on the island is motor vehicles. The projected increase in tourist numbers to the island over the next 5-10 years may see this level of mortality increase, especially as vehicle speeds are likely to increase significantly when the main tourist routes are upgraded. However, this effect will be relatively localised.

9 Recommended actions:

Monitor numbers of animals killed along selected sections of main tourist roads.


Kemper C.M. and Queale L. 1990. Mammals. In C.H.S. Watts (Ed.) A List of the Vertebrates of South Australia. Biological Survey Coordinating Committee and Department of Environment and Planning, Adelaide.


Taxon Summary

Atherton Antechinus

1 Family: Dasyuridae

2 Scientific name: Antechinus godmani (Thomas, 1923)

3 Common name: Atherton Antechinus

4 Conservation status: Lower Risk (near threatened): b

5 Past range and abundance:

Estimated to have encompassed 2 898 km2 on the eastern margins of and in the central Atherton Tablelands from Mt Bellenden Ker south to near Cardwell (Laurance 1993).

6 Present range and abundance:

Clearing, inundation and clearfelling of habitat has reduced the area of occupancy by an estimated 822 km Clearing, inundation and clearfelling of habitat has reduced the area of occupancy by an estimated 822 km2 (28.4%) and further fragmented the population (Laurance 1993). Recorded at only 30 sites between 1921 and 1991.

7 Habitat:

Appears to be limited to the narrow band (<30 km wide) of upland rainforest above 600 m elevation south of Cairns in far north Qld. Occurs in sheltered locations with dense ground cover, including selectively logged forest. Apparently rare and patchily distributed. Does not survive in fragments of < 100 ha and movements are restricted across roads > 5 m wide (Laurance 1993).

8 Current threats:

Additional deforestation, road construction.

9 Recommended actions:

9.1 Monitoring of known populations, especially in disturbed sites and small fragments.

9.2 Protection of habitat from further clearing and construction of roads > 5 m wide.


Laurence W.F. 1993. The pre-European and present distributions of Antechinus godmani (Marsupalia: Dasyuridae), a restricted rainforest endemic. Australian Mammalogy 16(1), 23-27.


Taxon Summary

Cinnamon Antechinus

1 Family: Dasyuridae

2 Scientific name: Antechinus leo Van Dyck, 1980

3 Common name: Cinnamon Antechinus

4 Conservation status: Lower Risk (near threatened): b

5 Past range and abundance:

Cape York, in rainforest from the McIlwraith Range to the Iron Range.

6 Present range and abundance:

Not known to differ substantially from past range Not known to differ substantially from past range.

7 Habitat:

Semi-deciduous mesophyll rainforest, preferring areas with dense understorey vegetation. It is semi-arboreal, insectivorous and nests in hollows. Occurs in both mature and secondary rainforest, but in the latter only where it is contiguous with mature rainforest.

8 Current threats:

None apparent, but it is likely that the species would decline under the influence of disturbance and fragmentation of rainforest.

9 Recommended actions:

Monitor distribution, abundance and general threats to habitat. The field biology of the species has been studied, and no additional specific research appears necessary for its conservation.


Leung L.K-P. 1995. Cinnamon Antechinus Antechinus leo. Pp. 91-92 in R. Strahan (Ed.) The Mammals of Australia. Reed Books, Chatswood, NSW.

Taxon Summary

Swamp Antechinus (SE mainland)

1 Family: Dasyuridae

2 Scientific name: Antechinus minimus maritimus (Finlayson, 1958)

3 Common name: Swamp Antechinus (SE mainland)

4 Conservation status: Lower Risk (near threatened): a, b

5 Past range and abundance:

Near-coastal areas of south-eastern SA and Vic. west of and including Sunday Island and Wilsons Promontory in wet heath, tussock grassland, heathy forest or sedgeland plant communities. Formerly more continuous, much less fragmented habitat and populations.

6 Present range and abundance:

Range similar to past but distribution less continuous due to drainage of wetlands and clearance of wetland vegetation

Range similar to past but distribution less continuous due to drainage of wetlands and clearance of wetland vegetation. Isolated populations in southern Gippsland Plain have been most affected by habitat modification and/or alienation. In SA, recorded since 1970 from coastal lakes and swamps south of Robe. In Vic., recorded since 1970 from three main areas, the south-western Wannon region, the Otways and the southern Gippsland Plain (Menkhorst 1995). The largest population densities have been recorded on Great Glennie Island off Wilsons Promontory (Vic.) with an estimated 80 individuals per ha (Wainer 1976). Wilson et al. (1986) recorded a maximum density of 14 per ha near Anglesea in the Otways.

7 Habitat:

Dense wet heath, tussock grassland, heathy forest or sedgeland plant communities, usually on or near coastal plains.

8 Current threats:

Not determined but likely to result from further drainage of swamp habitats, habitat/population fragmentation into small remnant habitat 'islands' and wildfire.

9 Recommended actions:

Systematic survey of current range to obtain accurate distribution baseline and determine current threats.


Menkhorst P.W. 1995. Swamp Antechinus. Pp. 43-44 in P.W. Menkhorst (Ed.) Mammals of Victoria. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.

Wainer J.W. 1976. Studies of an island population of Antechinus minimus (Marsupalia, Dasyuridae). Australian Zoologist 19, 1-7.

Wilson B.A., Bourne A.R. and Jessop R.E. 1986. Ecology of small mammals in coastal heathland at Anglesea, Victoria. Australian Wildlife Research 13, 397-406.


Taxon Summary

Dusky Antechinus (isolated Vic population)

1 Family: Dasyuridae

2 Scientific name: Antechinus swainsonii insulanus Davison, 1991

3 Common name: Dusky Antechinus (isolated Vic population)

4 Conservation Status: Lower Risk (near threatened): b

5 Past range and abundance:

The Grampians Ranges, western Vic.

6 Present range and abundance:

Virtually unchanged, although some sites on periphery of range may have been altered by habitat clearing Virtually unchanged, although some sites on periphery of range may have been altered by habitat clearing.

7 Habitat:

Damp areas with dense low vegetation cover in a range of vegetation alliances, including heath, forest and woodland. May also occur in drier habitats, providing dense understorey is present.

8 Current threats:

Virtually all of range is included in the Grampians NP, thus considered to be secure but requiring monitoring, because inappropriate habitat management could affect numbers or density. Fire regimes and predation by introduced carnivores are the most important issues for consideration.

9 Recommended actions:

9.1 Assess taxonomy by additional research; to include assessment of other isolated populations of the species in Vic.

9.2 Establish monitoring program to evaluate and review conservation status in the Grampians NP.

Note: This taxon has been assessed on the assumption that the subspecific diagnosis is correct and that the presumed range is accurate. However, there are reservations about the taxon's standing. In the investigation which reported this taxon, several flaws are perceived: no specimens of south-western Vic. A. s. mimetes, none from Mt Cole and only two from The Otways, one of which was from the Volcanic Plain, were examined; these populations are just as isolated from the major distributional range in western Vic. as are those from The Grampians. There are also at least two other isolated populations in eastern Vic. One specimen examined did not fit the analysis and was suggested to have been mis-labelled; that needs clarification. Another specimen from the periphery of The Grampians was considered to be outside the range, and yet the site is clearly part of The Grampians system. Until these issues are clarified, the taxon is doubtful. Nevertheless, it is a described taxon with limited range and numbers.


Davison A. 1991. A new subspecies of Dusky Antechinus, Antechinus swainsonii (Marsupalia: Dasyuridae) from western Victoria. Australian Mammalogy 14, 103-113.


Taxon Summary

Northern Quoll

1 Family: Dasyuridae

2 Scientific name: Dasyurus hallucatus Gould, 1842

3 Common name: Northern Quoll

4 Conservation status: Lower Risk (near threatened): a, c

5 Past range and abundance:

Northern Australia, from the Pilbara to south-eastern Qld, extending inland in the NT as far south as Alexandria. No historical data on abundance. Notably absent from the two large islands of Bathurst and Melville, but present on other, smaller islands.

6 Present range and abundance:

Substantial decline in southern and eastern Qld and Cape York Peninsula

Substantial decline in southern and eastern Qld and Cape York Peninsula. Apparently disappeared from most or all of the lower rainfall former range in the NT (eg. Gulf hinterland, Victoria River district) and south-east and south-west Kimberley; substantial decline in Pilbara (Braithwaite and Griffiths 1994).

Apparently undergoes periodic fluctuations in abundance. For example, occurred in 'plague proportions' at Mt Molloy (where usually common) in north-eastern Qld in 1983.

7 Habitat:

Occurs in a range of habitats, including Eucalyptus open forest, monsoon rainforest and savanna woodland, but most abundant (and apparently with less fluctuation) in rocky environments. In north Qld, most common in coastal and/or high altitude rocky areas and in drier habitats of upland tablelands.

8 Current threats:

Uncertain, may be vulnerable to disease, possibly related to presence of cats. Cats and dogs are known to kill individuals, although they apparently do not like to eat them. Predation is the main cause of mortality in some areas, particularly in woodland and forest habitats.

Recent substantial declines in Iron Range (Qld) and Cape York Peninsula may have some association with spread of Cane Toads (Burnett in prep.). Has also disappeared from coastal lowland areas in north Qld, including the Burdekin River delta and around Townsville, following agricultural and urban development. Populations in the Kakadu area are thought to fluctuate in response to periods of above- or below-average rainfall.

9 Recommended actions:

9.1 Monitor abundance and disease-status at selected sites across range.

9.2 Undertake additional research into causes of decline.

Note: A PhD on the ecology of the species is nearing completion (Meri Oakwood, ANU).


Braithwaite R.W. and Griffiths A.D. 1994. Demographic variation and range contraction in the Northern Quoll, Dasyurus hallucatus (Marsupalia: Dasyuridae). Wildlife Research 21, 203-217.

Burnett S. in prep. Colonising Cane Toads cause population declines in some Australian predators: reliable anecdotal information and research and management implications.

Watt A. 1993. Conservation status and draft management plan for Dasyurus maculatus and D. hallucatus in southern Queensland. Report to Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage and Department of Environment, Sport and Territories (unpublished).

Taxon Summary

Eastern Quoll

1 Family: Dasyuridae

2 Scientific name: Dasyurus viverrinus (Shaw, 1800)

3 Common name: Eastern Quoll

4 Conservation status: Lower Risk (near threatened): a

5 Past range and abundance:

South-eastern Australian mainland and Tasmania including of South Australia (from the southern Flinders Range to the Fleureu Peninsula), Victoria and New South Wales as far north as Sydney. Common in the early days of settlement.

6 Present range and abundance:

Range has been reduced by 50-90%

Range has been reduced by 50-90%. Extinct on the Australian mainland within the last 30 years. The last mainland sighting was in 1966 in Vaucluse (Sydney). Unsubstantiated reports of sightings in several locations in northern NSW over the last 20 years; however, extensive fauna surveys in the north-east forests of NSW have failed to detect the species.

Now present only in Tas. and on Bruny Island (Tas.), where it may have been introduced. Widespread within Tas. but distribution is patchy. Common in some areas, absent or rare in others. Present range and abundance not understood.

7 Habitat:

In Tas., open forests, woodlands, grasslands and ecotones including agricultural pasture, but also occurs in heaths, wet scrub and moorlands. Occurs at all altitudes and in a wide range of vegetation types except rainforest (Rounsevell et al. 1991). Specific habitat requirements are unknown.

8 Current threats:

Threatening processes causing the decline/extinction on Australian mainland are not known. The impact of feral cats in Tas. is not well understood. Biology is fairly well known (Godsell 1982, 1983; Bryant 1988b; Jones 1995) but diseases and habitat requirements for conservation of populations is not. The density of populations in different habitats is not known and is not monitored. Very susceptible to road mortality. An increase in traffic speed has resulted in local extinction in one area (Jones 1993).

Requires monitoring. In critical weight range for native marsupials and potentially vulnerable to the possibility of establishment of the fox in Tas.

9 Recommended actions:

9.1 Design and implement a suitable system for monitoring change in range and abundance of the species in Tas.

9.2 Identify threats and habitat requirements for management, through appropriately developed research.


Bryant S. 1988a. Maintenance and captive breeding of the Eastern Quoll, Dasyurus viverrinus. International Zoo Yearbook 27, 119-124.

Bryant S. 1988b. Seasonal breeding in the Eastern Quoll, Dasyurus viverrinus (Marsupalia: Dasyuridae). PhD Thesis, University of Tasmania (unpublished).

Godsell J. 1982. The population ecology of the Eastern Quoll Dasyurus viverrinus (Dasyuridae, Marsupalia) in southern Tasmania. Pp. 199-207 in M. Archer (Ed.) Carnivorous Marsupials Volume 1. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Sydney.

Godsell J. 1983. Ecology of the Eastern Quoll Dasyurus viverrinus (Dasyuridae: Marsupalia). PhD thesis, Australian National University (unpublished).

Jones M. 1993. Road mortality of eastern quolls and devils on the Cradle Mountain tourist road. Report to Department of Transport and Works and Department of Environment and Land Management Parks and Wildlife Service (unpublished).

Jones M. 1995. Guild structure of the large marsupial carnivores in Tasmania. PhD thesis, University of Tasmania (unpublished).

Menkhorst P.W. 1995. Eastern Quoll. Pp. 53-54 in P.W. Menkhorst (Ed.) Mammals of Victoria. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.

Rounsevell D.E., Taylor R.J. and Hocking G.J. 1991. Distribution records of native terrestrial mammals in Tasmania. Wildlife Research 18, 699-717.


Taxon Summary

Brush-tailed Phascogale (N mainland)

1 Family: Dasyuridae

2 Scientific name: Phascogale tapoatafa pirata Thomas, 1904

3 Common name: Brush-tailed Phascogale (N mainland)

4 Conservation status: Lower Risk (near threatened): a, c

5 Past range and abundance:

Kimberley (extending south to Broome), Top End of NT and Cape York Peninsula, though the actual number of locations from which the taxon has been reported within this range is very small (probably ~12). Dahl (1897) noted that it was "frequently observed. In fact nearly everywhere inland (referring to the Katherine area) it was very constant, and on a moonlight walk one would generally expect to see this little marsupial". The total number of historic records are few.

Winter and Allison (1980) noted that the species is rare on Cape York Peninsula, with the only records being of a few specimens collected in the late 1920s and early 1930s by Thomson (from near Lockhart River Mission and probably near Edward River: Dixon and Huxley 1985). They also note that the species may have very sparse populations or occur in small pockets, which may account for lack of records. Apparently always uncommon, or at least uncommonly seen on Cape York Peninsula, as Aborigines from Edward River were unfamiliar with it when Donald Thompson collected it there in 1929 (Thompson in Dixon and Huxley 1985).

6 Present range and abundance:

Very few recent records from the Kimberley

Very few recent records from the Kimberley. Not recorded in recent Kimberley surveys at Dampier Peninsula (McKenzie 1983), Drysdale River (Kabay and Burbidge 1977), Prince Regent River NR (Miles and Burbidge 1975), Kimberley islands (Burbidge and McKenzie 1978), Purnululu (Woinarski 1992). The last record from the south-west Kimberley was Dahl's in 1895 (McKenzie 1981).

In the Top End, recent records from West Pellew Island (two individuals in 1988: Johnson and Kerle 1981), Lichtfield NP (1995) and Kakadu (several recent road kills, most recent 1995). Not recorded in recent wildlife surveys of the Wessel Islands (Woinarski and Fisher unpublished), Cape Arnhem Peninsula (Gambold et al. 1995), Cobourg Peninsula (Frith and Calaby 1974) or Tiwi Island (Fensham and Woinarski 1992). It is reported to be common in the Jabiru area (K. Brennan pers. comm.).

For many years was thought to occur only on northern Cape York Peninsula and had not been recorded there since 1932. Sightings between 1976 and 1995 have extended the known range south into northern Qld by more than 500 km and have confirmed its continued presence in north Qld. The taxon is known from ten localities within northern Qld and Cape York Peninsula, although there are no sites where it has been regularly sighted over a number of years. There are records from the Rockhampton area (Ingram and Raven 1991).

7 Habitat:

Little information. Most recent records are from tall open forest of Eucalyptus miniata-E. tetrodonta (Jabiru area), though Dahl (1897) was insistent that the species appeared more common in "the dry inland scrubs" rather than "the better watered jungle and forests of the coast". The Pellew Island specimens were from "open woodland with a tussock grassy understorey".

Recorded in Hibiscus tiliaceus tree close to beach on Cape York Peninsula (Dixon and Huxley 1985). More recent specimens from north Qld have come from sparse open woodland, boundary between woodland and riparian forest, and open forest (Covacevich et al. 1994) and from deciduous vine thicket and from sparse rocky sclerophyll woodland (Burnett in prep.). Sites range in altitude from sea level to 1000 m (Burnett in prep.) and from about 10 to 200 km from the coast. All sightings are from drier habitats within the region and the phascogale is apparently absent from rainforest, unlike P. t. tapoatafa in south-eastern Australia.

8 Current threats:

Uncertain. Possibly predation or spread of parasites by feral cats. Maybe Cane Toads (though diet is principally insectivorous). Changes to frequency and intensity of fires may limit hollow availability.

Grazing activity may reduce habitat quality by disrupting food chains or by rendering animals more susceptible to introduced predators. Proposed urban development of some areas of the taxon's habitat in north Qld will result in habitat loss and increases in predation pressure from domestic and feral cats and dogs.

9 Recommended actions:

9.1 Monitor existing known populations and undertake autecological study (diet, habitat).

9.2 Institute wide-ranging survey, using carefully targeted specific methodology (hair tubes, traps or nest boxes attached to trees). Due to its unique appearance, surveys may be able to make use of community surveys to record presence of the taxon.

Note: The status of this taxon is hard to interpret given the paucity of records. It appears to be not very detectable by general survey methods.


Burbidge A.A. and McKenzie N.L. (Eds) 1978. The islands of the North-west Kimberley Western Australia. Wildlife Research Bulletin of Western Australia No. 7, 1-47. Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Perth.

Burnett S. in prep. The Brush-tailed Phascogale Phascogale tapoatafa in North Queensland with notes on its conservation status.

Covacevich J.A., Roberts L., Storch D. and Van Dyck S. 1994. New Phascogale tapoatafa (Brush-tailed Phascogale) records from Cape York Peninsula, Australia. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 37(1), 82.

Dahl K. 1897. Biological notes on north-Australian mammalia. The Zoologist 671, 189-216.

Dixon J. and Huxley L. (Eds) 1985. Donald Thompson's Mammals and Fishes of Northern Australia. Thomas Nelson, Melbourne.

Fensham R.J. and Woinarski J.C.Z. 1992. Yawulama: the ecology and conservation of monsoon forest on the Tiwi Islands, Northern Territory. Report to Australian Heritage Commission, Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory, Darwin (unpublished).

Frith H.J. and Calaby J.H. 1974. Fauna survey of the Port Essington District, Cobourg Peninsula, Northern Territory of Australia. CSIRO Division of Wildlife Research Technical Paper No. 28. CSIRO, Canberra.

Gambold N.J., Woinarski J.C.Z., Brennan K., Jackson D., Munnunggiritj N., Wunungmurra B., Yunupingu D., Burrarrwanga N. and Wearne G. 1995. Fauna survey of the proposed Nanydjaka Reserve (Cape Arnhem Peninsula) with reference to the fauna of northeastern Arnhem Land. Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory, Darwin.

Ingram G.J. and Raven R.J. (Eds) 1991. An Atlas of Queensland's Frogs, Reptiles, Birds and Mammals. Queensland Museum, Brisbane.

Johnson K.A. and Kerle J.A. 1991. Flora and vertebrate fauna of the Sir Edward Pellew Group of Islands, Northern Territory. Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory, Alice Springs.

Kabay E.D. and Burbidge A.A. (Eds) 1977. A biological survey of the Drysdale River National Park, North Kimberley, Western Australia. Wildlife Research Bulletin of Western Australia No. 6, 1-133. Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Perth.

McKenzie N.L. 1981. Mammals of the Phanerozoic South-west Kimberley, Western Australia: biogeography and recent changes. Journal of Biogeography 8, 263-280.

McKenzie N.L. (Ed.) 1983. Wildlife of the Dampier Peninsula, south-west Kimberley, Western Australia. Wildlife Research Bulletin of Western Australia No. 11, 1-83. Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Perth.

Miles J.M. and Burbidge A.A. (Eds) 1975. A biological survey of the Prince Regent River Reserve, North-west Kimberley, Western Australia. Wildlife Research Bulletin of Western Australia No. 3, 1-114. Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Perth.

Winter J.W. and Atherton R.G. 1985. Survey of the mammals and other vertebrates of the Weipa Region, Cape York Peninsula. Queensland National Parks and Wildlife Service, Brisbane.

Woinarski J.C.Z. 1992. A survey of the wildlife and vegetation of Purnululu (Bungle Bungle) National Park and adjacent area. CALM Research Bulletin 6, 1-140.