Conservation Research Statement and Species Recovery Plan for (Persoonia nutans) R. Br. 1996

Geoff Robertson, Maria Matthes, Martin Smith
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service
Environment Australia

Appendix 2

Site Descriptions for Persoonia nutans.

Agnes Banks

P. nutans occurs in such numbers in the Agnes Banks area that it was not possible to count every individual. Since the habitat is reasonably homogeneous parallel transects were surveyed every 100m on either side of the tracks through the Agnes Banks sands deposit. The number of plants found within 10 metres on either side of a 100m transect line was counted, to give the number of plants in 0.2 hectares. Due to the time constraints on the survey distances were measured by pacing. The boundary of the survey area was delineated using ground truthing, air photographs and the 1:25,000 topographic map. A Forestry Commission dot/grid overlay was used to estimate the overall size of the survey area. The average number of plants per hectare was then multiplied by the survey area to give the number of plants on the sand deposit.

There are several potential sources of error using this approach. The first is that pacing the boundaries of each transect will introduce errors. Low densities were encountered, with an average of 10 plants being found per transect. Due to the low density inaccuracies in the size of the transect probably have not greatly affected the final result.

The second source of error is the delineation of the survey area. Fortunately in this case the boundary is clear. To the West and North the land has been cleared for farming and sand extraction, to the South and East there is a distinct boundary evident both on the ground and in air photos from the sand vegetation to the vegetation growing on the underlying clay. At this site this form of error is probably the least significant.

A third, and possibly major source of error is the variation in numbers of plants across the survey area. The error was minimised by spacing the transects such that as much of the area as possible was surveyed in the time available. Transects were placed every 100 metres along the track network and were also conducted through those areas on the periphery that were not part of the track system. In all 46 transects were undertaken in an area of 77.5 hectares. The survey did in fact show that there is a statistically significant decrease in the number of plants from the North of the area to the South.

The estimated total number was 4,327 with a standard error of 682 (n=46). Forty five percent of these plants are located inside the Nature Reserve/PCO area.

The understory at Agnes Banks is dense and up to 4 metres high. Some P. nutans were approx. 2.5 metres tall and 3.5 metres across. Most bushes had produced large numbers of fruit, and were still producing flowers. The number of fruit on larger shrubs, ie 2x3 metres, was estimated to be in excess of 1,000. Even plants only 40 cm. high had up to 60 fruit.

The vegetation of Agnes Banks has been closely examined on a number of occasions as described in Benson, (1981). Since P. nutans occurs throughout the area, (eg. In 1976 Benson found P. nutans at 58% of sites, and in this survey it was found on 89% of the transects.) the vegetation was not specifically examined on each transect due to time constraints.

Some general observations that may warrant further investigation are:

P. nutans appears more commonly in the better drained areas. This was inferred from the higher numbers found in E. sclerophylla/ A. bakeri/ B. serrata woodland compared with E. parramattensis/ E. sclerophylla woodland.

In addition P. nutans seems capable of colonising land that has been severely disturbed. At one location inside the P.B. White sand mine there were 65 P. nutans growing on a strip of land in between a drainage canal and a road. The land surface was highly irregular plus the immature form of the scribbly gums indicated that the land had been completely cleared at some point. The understory was very sparse with shrubs being spaced several metres apart. P. nutans was one of the dominant shrubs, along with Melaleuca nodosa, Callistemon pinifolius, Petrophile pulchella, Acacia elongata and Pimelia linifolia. There were approx. 230 plants per hectare in the disturbed area compared with 103 per hectare in the area immediately across the road to the south in undisturbed bush .

Dominant Species:

Canopy: Eucalyptus sclerophylla, Angophora bakeri, Eucalyptus parramattensis, Banksia serrata, Banksia aemula, Melalueca decora.

Understory: See Benson, (1981).

Groundcover: See Benson, (1981).

Nationally/Regionally Significant Plants: See Benson, (1981).

Threats: Alteration of the drainage patterns due to changing groundwater levels. The activities of the sand mine may affect ground water levels. The Department of Land and Water Conservation is monitoring the water level in a series of bore holes throughout the area. The effect of a change in the water table is unknown.

Site 28

Wiltshire Road, Agnes Banks. Thirteen mature plants, and 5 seedlings were found on the road verges. Buds, flowers and fruit were found.

Dominant Species:

Canopy: Angophora bakeri, Eucalyptus sclerophylla.

Understory: Persoonia nutans, Ricinocarpus pinifolius, Comesperma ericinum, Pimelia linifolia, Bossiaea rhombifolia.

Groundcover: Imperata cylindrica, Lomandra longifolia, Cheilanthes sieberi, Andropogon virginicus.

Nationally/Regionally Significant Plants: None.

Threats: The site is adjacent to a quarrying operation and is subject to weed invasion, rubbish dumping and damage from roadworks.

Castlereagh Nature Reserve.

Three sites were examined in Castlereagh Nature Reserve and a drive around some of the tracks revealed more specimens. It appears P. nutans may be widespread through the Nature Reserve, mostly at low densities. A more detailed survey is required.

Site 46

Castlereagh Nature Reserve, Grid Reference 0292219 6271825. 200 plants were found in 4 transects through an area 400x200 paces. Most plants were between 1-2m and were laden with fruit. Some flowers were still present. Six plants were found 50 cm high and not yet sexually mature. There were more plants both inside and outside the survey area that were not counted.

Dominant Species:

Canopy: Angophora bakeri, Eucalyptus sclerophylla. Some Eucalyptus fibrosa, Melaleuca decora and Eucalyptus parramattensis were also present.

Understory: Banksia spinulosa, Hakea sericea, Grevillea mucronulata, Hakea dactyloides, Prosthanthera scutellarioides, Acacia elongata.

Groundcover: Themeda australis, Cyathochaeta diandra, Aristida ramosa, Lepidosperma laterale, Shoenus sp..

Nationally/Regionally Significant Plants: None

Threats: Six mature and four juvenile Pinus radiata were found. These have the potential to significantly alter the habitat and will be removed. Interestingly the trees have clearly survived fires in the past, suggesting that the fires have been cool and not reached the crowns of the trees.

Site 47

Castlereagh Nature Reserve, Grid Reference 0293240 6271740. Ten plants were found in a single transect 600m long. Two of these plants were 50 cm high. The other plants were approx. 1-1.5m tall. There were many fruit, plus some flowers and buds.

Dominant Species:

Canopy: Eucalyptus parramattensis, Angophora bakeri with some Melaleuca decora.

Understory: Sparse, Banksia spinulosa, Hakea sericea, Dillwynia tenuifolia, Pultenaea villosa, Acacia elongata, Melaleuca decora.

Groundcover: Themeda australis, Aristida ramosa, Lomandra multiflora, Dianella revoluta, Cyathochaeta diandra, Shoenus sp..

Nationally/Regionally Significant Plants: Dillwynia tenuifolia.

Threats: Some weed invasion of Andropogon virginicus along the track margins.

Site 48

Castlereagh Nature Reserve, Grid Reference 0291915 62716570. Forty plants were found in an area 100x25 metres. The plants were 80cm-200cm tall, possessed many fruit and some flowers and buds. More plants were seen to the N of the survey area. The site was just downstream of a small dam and the woodland consisted of many juvenile E. fibrosa and A. bakeri among a few more mature E. fibrosa reaching 20-25m. Logging had occurred in the past. Most of the plants were within 10 metres of the track.

Dominant Species:

Canopy: Eucalyptus fibrosa, Angophora bakeri with some Eucalyptus parramattensis and Eucalyptus sclerophylla.

Understory: Dillwynia tenuifolia, Hakea sericea, Leptospermum trinervium, Melaleuca nodosa, Prosthanthera scutellarioides, Hakea dactyloides.

Groundcover: Sparse, Cyathochaeta diandra, Themeda australis, Aristida ramosa, Dianella revoluta.

Nationally/Regionally Significant Plants: Dillwynia tenuifolia.

Threats: Eight Pinus radiata were found. Severe gullying was evident in the watercourse downstream of the dam. The head of the gully is expanding and will impinge on the population if not arrested, as it is only 6 metres away. (The head of the gully is a clover leaf shape about 10m across).

P. nutans was found on a very brief survey along some of the tracks in the Nature Reserve. The locations, numbers and canopy are described below:

0292094 6270598: Two plants found in forest of Eucalyptus fibrosa with an understory of immature E. fibrosa and Eucalyptus sclerophylla.

0292481 6270120: One plant found in woodland of Angophora bakeri and Eucalyptus sclerophylla with some Eucalyptus parramattensis.

0290998 6270708: Two plants found in open woodland of Eucalyptus sclerophylla, Angophora bakeri, Eucalyptus fibrosa and Eucalyptus parramattensis.

Windsor Downs Nature Reserve.

Seven sites were studied in Windsor Downs revealing 66 individuals. No concentrations of P. nutans were found, but the species appears widespread in the Reserve.

Site 36

Windsor Downs Nature Reserve, Grid Reference 0296200 6273211. Fifteen plants were found scattered in an area 300x400 paces.

Dominant Species:

Canopy: Eucalyptus fibrosa woodland to 20m with the occasional Angophora bakeri and Eucalyptus sclerophylla.

Understory: Sparse. Daviesia ulicifolia, Dillwynia tenuifolia, Hakea sericea, Grevillea mucronulata, Exocarpus cupressiformis.

Groundcover: Cyathochaeta diandra, Themeda australis, Cheilanthes sieberi, Lomandra multiflora, Anisopogon avenaceous, Dianella revoluta.

Nationally/Regionally Significant Plants: Dillwynia tenuifolia.

Threats: None obvious, other than those associated with proximity to suburban development.

Site 39

Grid Reference: 0295927 6273645. Three plants were found growing to 1.6m approx. 100m from the boundary of the Nature Reserve. Flowers and fruit were present. A seedling 25cm high was found on the side of a small track about 100m E. Another seedling was found growing just outside the Nature Reserve on land that has been subdivided for a housing development. The land has been cleared but several species were colonising the land close to the boundary fence of the Nature Reserve.

Dominant Species:

Canopy: Angophora bakeri and Eucalyptus sclerophylla.

Understory: Melaleuca nodosa, Pimelia linifolia, Leptospermum polygalifolium, Dillwynia tenuifolia, Hakea sericea, Grevillea mucronulata.

Groundcover:Dense. Themeda australis, Cyathochaeta diandra, Xanthorrhoea minor, Aristida ramosa, Lomandra multiflora.

Nationally/Regionally Significant Plants: Dillwynia tenuifolia.

Threats: None obvious, other than those associated with proximity to suburban development.

Site 40

Grid Reference 0296030 6273914. Fifteen plants between 1-2m were found in an area 80mx80m. Large numbers of fruit were present with some flowers and buds. Two further specimens were encountered 200m to the E.

Dominant Species:

Canopy: Angophora bakeri and Eucalyptus sclerophylla.

Understory: Very sparse. Melaleuca nodosa, Dillwynia tenuifolia. Some Melaleuca decora, Grevillea mucronulata, Acacia falcata, Pimelia linifolia.

Groundcover:Primarily Themeda australis. Some Cyathochaeta diandra, Dianella revoluta, Stylidium gramminifolium, Aristida ramosa.

Nationally/Regionally Significant Plants: Dillwynia tenuifolia.

Threats: None obvious, other than those associated with proximity to suburban development.

Site 41

Grid Reference: 0295800 6274811. 'Surprise Trail'. Two plants were found 1m high. One bush had in excess of 500 fruit, and was still producing buds and flowers. The other plant had fewer fruit and also buds and flowers.

Dominant Species:

Canopy: Eucalyptus fibrosa with a lower layer of Melaleuca decora.

Understory: Very sparse. Daviesia ulicifolia, Dillwynia tenuifolia, Melaleuca decora, Acacia elongata, Lissanthe strigosa.

Groundcover:Very sparse. Themeda australis, Aristida warburgii, Lomandra longifolia, Dianella revoluta.

Nationally/Regionally Significant Plants: Dillwynia tenuifolia.

Threats: None obvious, other than those associated with proximity to suburban development.

Several other locations were discovered on a drive through some of the tracks and their locations and numbers are described below:

Grid Reference: 0296431 6273765: 'Mr Corn's Trail'. Eleven plants were found on a slight rise with a canopy of E. sclerophylla, E. fibrosa and A. bakeri.

Grid Reference: 0295977 6274888: 'Surprise Trail'. One seedling 35 cm high.

Grid Reference: 0296084 6274738: 'Surprise Trail'. Three plants growing close together 80 cm high. Fruit present.

Grid Reference: 0295775 6274232: 'Richmond Road Trail'. Two plants, fruit present, 1.5m high.

Grid Reference: 0295267 6274482: 'Richmond Road Trail'. One plant with flowers and fruit.

One plant found 60 cm high. Location not recorded.

Eight plants found 30-60 cm. Location not recorded.

Londonderry Sites.

Site 53

Western side of the 'Drop Zone', at the boundary of the 'Drop Zone' and a track heading SW. Grid Reference: 0287800 6273600. Five hundred and one plants were found in an area 250mx20m. The site had been completely cleared at some time, presumably to form the western boundary of the Drop Zone. No mature trees were growing on site although there were occasional saplings of the tree species that occur locally.

More plants were seen in the woodland W of the site. There may also be more plants to the N and S of the surveyed area. Many plants were less than 60 cm tall. Nearly all of these possessed fruit. One plant 40 cm high had 60 fruit, another 30 cm high had 47 fruit. Some plants were 1.5m high and 2m wide, with hundreds of fruit.

Dominant Species:

Canopy: Non-existent, although saplings of: E. sclerophylla, A. bakeri, E. parramattensis, M. decora.

Understory: Very sparse. Melaleuca nodosa, Conospermum longifolium, Kunzea capitata, Hakea sericea, Dillwynia tenuifolia, Petrophile pulchella.

Groundcover:Extremely sparse. Scattered clumps of Themeda australis, Fimbristylis sp..

Nationally/Regionally Significant Plants: Dillwynia tenuifolia.

Threats: Periodically the armed services clear the drop zone of vegetation. Recent clearing of the drop zone has stopped short of this population at the base of the rise on which the population is found. Liaison with the armed forces is required to alert them to the populations growing on the perimeter of the Drop Zone. However, given that the densest populations are found on highly disturbed habitats it may be that periodic disturbance is beneficial for the survival of this species.

Site 54

Intersection of the track leading SW from the Drop Zone with the first track leading S to Devlin Rd, Grid Reference: 0287600 6273500. This area is highly disturbed and is at the intersection of a number of tracks. Islands of shrub species remain or have colonised the areas between the tracks. The survey area consists of an island of shrubs about 40m in diameter encircled by tracks. A circular dam 12.5m in diameter lies in the middle, with a bund 1-1.5m high to retain the water. Shrubs have colonised the sides of this bund. One hundred and ninety four P. nutans were found, including 5 seedlings. This corresponds to a density of 1,711 plants per hectare, nearly an order of magnitude greater than the most dense population in undisturbed habitat at Agnes Banks. Most individuals possessed large numbers of fruit.

Dominant Species:

Canopy: Non-existent, although saplings of: E. sclerophylla, A. bakeri, M. decora up to 2m were found.

Understory: Kunzea capitata, Conospermum longifolium, Hakea sericea, Grevillea mucronulata, Petrophile pulchella.

Groundcover:Extremely sparse. Scattered clumps of Themeda australis, Aristida ramosa.

Nationally/Regionally Significant Plants:None.

Threats: African lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) occur, but not in great numbers. Track widening is also a potential threat.

Site 59

Intersection of tracks 800m S of Fire Trail Road along '300° ' track. Grid Reference 0287600 6273400. Seven P. nutans were encountered in the process of searching for Allocasuarina glareicola. More noted in vicinity.

Dominant Species:

Canopy: E. sclerophylla, A. bakeri.

Understory: Kunzea capitata, Conospermum longifolium, Hakea sericea, Grevillea mucronulata, Petrophile pulchella, Leptospermum trinervium.

Groundcover: Themeda australis, Aristida ramosa, Xanthorrhoea minor, Patersonia fragilis, Haemodorum planifolium, Cyathochaeta diandra.

Nationally/Regionally Significant Plants: Acacia bynoeana.

Threats: Rubbish dumping, track widening.

Site 60

Intersection of '300° ' track with track running W from the Drop Zone, 650m S of Fire Trail Road along '300° ' track. Grid Reference 0287700 6273700. Seven P. nutans were encountered while searching for Allocasuarina glareicola. More noted in vicinity, particularly W of the intersection.

Dominant Species:

Canopy: E. sclerophylla.

Understory: Hakea sericea, Grevillea mucronulata, Pultenaea elliptica, Leptospermum parvifolium, Leptospermum trinervium, Conospermum longifolium.

Groundcover: Themeda australis, Patersonia fragilis, Cyathochaeta diandra.

Nationally/Regionally Significant Plants: None.

Threats: Rubbish dumping, track widening.

Site 30

This site is at the SE corner of the 'Drop Zone.' Grid Reference 2088250 6273150. Eight plants were found growing to 60 cm with four possessing fruit. The plants are growing between the pile of soil and debris created by the clearing of the Drop Zone and a track 6m E. It is difficult to determine whether the soil has been disturbed but the area has been completely cleared.

Dominant Species:

Canopy: Non existent. Saplings of E. fibrosa and E. parramattensis 5-6m high.

Understory: Melaleuca nodosa, Hakea sericea, Pultenaea elliptica, Dillwynia tenuifolia, Leptospermum trinervium, Conospermum longifolium.

Groundcover: Themeda australis, Aristida ramosa, Aristida warburgii, Lomandra multiflora.

Nationally/Regionally Significant Plants: Dillwynia tenuifolia.

Threats: The site is subject to damage from off road vehicle use, track extension and rubbish dumping.

Site 33

Is located 300m from the W end of a track running between Fire Trail and Nutt Roads, approx. 650m S of Devlin Road. Grid Reference: 0287100 6272300. This site consisted of 3 individuals growing to 50 cm.

Dominant Species:

Canopy: E. parramattensis.

Understory: Melaleuca nodosa, Hakea sericea, Callistemon pinifolius, Banksia spinulosa, Banksia oblongifolia, Petrophile pulchella.

Groundcover: Themeda australis, Cyathochaeta diandra, Aristida ramosa, Aristida warburgii, Lomandra multiflora.

Nationally/Regionally Significant Plants: None.

Threats: The site is subject to damage from rubbish dumping, soil collection and track extension.

Site 34

Is located 150m E of Fire Trail Road, 250m S of the Devlin/Fire Trail Road intersection. Grid Reference: 0286900 6272500. This site consisted of 25 mature and 31 immature individuals growing to 150 cm.

Dominant Species:

Canopy: E. sclerophylla, A. bakeri. Some M. decora saplings to 5m.

Understory: Melaleuca nodosa, Hakea sericea, Banksia spinulosa, Leptospermum trinervium, Pimelia linifolia, Hakea dactyloides.

Groundcover: Themeda australis, Cyathochaeta diandra, Aristida warburgii, Patersonia fragilis, Dianella revoluta..

Nationally/Regionally Significant Plants: None.

Threats: The site is subject to damage from rubbish dumping and track extension

Site 35

Is located just S of Devlin Road, 300m E of the Devlin/Fire trail Road intersection. Grid Reference: 0287200 6272800. The site has been cleared and recolonisation is occurring by the surrounding woodland tree species. Saplings of E. sclerophylla, A. bakeri, and M. decora were found. P. nutans was only found in the disturbed areas. Several searches in the adjacent woodland failed to find any individuals. In all, 751 P. nutans were found in an area of about 5.75 hectares. However this figure underestimates the true density of the different sub-populations as it includes a number of tracks. The largest single sub-population contains 536 individuals and like Site 54 is encircled by a track. The area is approx. 1.26 ha. giving a density of 425 plants per ha. There is a large range of plant size, from 20cm to 1.5m. Some larger individuals appeared senescent, having very few leaves. Lots of fruit were present along with smaller numbers of buds and flowers.

Dominant Species:

Canopy: E. sclerophylla, A. bakeri, and M. decora saplings to 4m.

Understory: Hakea sericea, Kunzea ambigua, Grevillea mucronulata, Leptospermum trinervium, Leptospermum polygalifolium.

Groundcover: Occasional clump of Themeda australis, Shoenus sp., and Lichens and Mosses.

Nationally/Regionally Significant Plants: None.

Threats: African Lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula) was present with lesser amounts of Whisky Grass (Andropogon virginicus) and Feathertop Rhodes Grass (Chloris virgata). Off road vehicles may pose a threat.

Southern Sites

Several outliers of the Berkshire Park soil landscape occur in the Liverpool area, principally in the vicinity of the Georges River between Maquarie Fields and Voyager Point. The soil supports a woodland of the same structure and similar floristic composition as occurs on the Northern Cumberland plain. Several collectors found P. nutans in these parts around the turn of the Century and up until the 1960's. However since then the Liverpool area has been a centre of suburban expansion and many of these locations have been cleared for both housing and industrial development.

Site 9

North of the East Hills Military Barracks at Voyager Point. Grid Reference: 0312400 6240500. Three plants were found spread over an area of 300x200m. Surveys along the tracks through the woodland did not reveal any more individuals. Two plants were 1m tall and possessed approx. 150-200 fruit, the other plant was 60 cm high with 42 fruit.

Dominant Species:

Canopy: E. sclerophylla, A. bakeri, and some E. parramattensis.

Understory: Pimelia linifolia, Dillwynia sericea, Hakea sericea, Callistemon linifolia, Banksia spinulosa, Hakea dactyloides.

Groundcover: Themeda australis, Dianella revoluta, Xanthorrhoea minor, Cyathochaeta diandra, Aristida ramosa, Anisopogon avenaceous.

Nationally/Regionally Significant Plants: None.

Threats: This site may at risk from clearing for suburban development in the future.

Site 6

Simmo's Beach Reserve, Maquarie Fields. Grid Reference: 0306400 6235900. One hundred and nine plants were found near the entrance to the Reserve, and one other about half way down to the river. This site has the largest concentration of P. nutans outside the Northern Cumberland plain. The plants are growing on a thin outcrop of bp soil overlying sandstone. Ironstone pebbles are common along with laterised surfaces. P. nutans is found close to the entrance of the reserve in an area that is a mosaic of small patches of bush dissected by tracks. These tracks may have helped preserve the population by limiting the spread of fire. Gravel was mined prior to the area being declared Regional Open Space. Council believes that the area where the main sub-population is found was cleared in the past. The uneven soil surface and form of the trees supports this.

Dominant Species:

Canopy: A. bakeri, E. sclerophylla and some E. parramattensis.

Understory: Bursaria spinosa, Melaleuca nodosa, Pimelia linifolia, Kunzea ambigua, Acacia brownei, Acacia terminalis, Hakea sericea, Dillwynia sericea, Banksia spinulosa.

Groundcover: Themeda australis, Anisopogon avenaceous, Trachymene incisa.

Nationally/Regionally Significant Plants: None.

Threats: The population is concentrated in the patch of bush immediately adjacent to the entrance. Council have been alerted to the presence of P. nutans so that any clearing or horticultural operations do not affect the population. Hazard reduction burning should not occur in the islands of bush that contain P. nutans until the population dynamics in relation to disturbance are understood. This knowledge is vital for the management of this species. In this population there are a number of individuals with few leaves, indicating plant stress. The canopy is much denser than is usual in places where P. nutans occurs, suggesting that disturbance may be necessary for the plants to persist. Again, the poor understanding of the species' response to disturbance hampers management recommendations.

Site 11

Grid Reference: 0296000 6248450. This site occurs on a small outlier of the bp soil landscape at Kemp's Creek. Housing development has eliminated P. nutans from the original collection location. A search on private land W of Kemps Creek Park revealed 3 specimens. Disturbance has been patchy and there are large areas in good condition with a dense understory to 4m. The plants were about 60 cm high with only 18 fruit.

Dominant Species:

Canopy: E. sclerophylla, E. parramattensis, E. fibrosa.

Understory: Allocasuarina littoralis, Acacia elongata, Melaleuca decora, Olearia microphylla, Dillwynia tenuifolia, Leptospermum parvifolium.

Groundcover: Themeda australis, Lepidosperma laterale, Patersonia fragilis, Aristida ramosa, Xanthorrhoea minor.

Nationally/Regionally Significant Plants: Dillwynia tenuifolia.

Threats: Clearing for suburban development.

Site 58

On a track parallel to and North of Heathcote Road, E of Sirius Road. Grid Reference: 0313184 6239322. Eight plants were found growing very close together at the side of a track. Twenty seven fruit were counted but no flowers or buds were present. The plants were in poor condition and a nearby Hakea had fallen on them. Another three plants were found about 200m E, next to a recently bulldozed track. These were in better condition, despite having been partially buried by dirt from the creation of the track.

Dominant Species:

Canopy: E. sclerophylla, A. bakeri, E. parramattensis.

Understory: Petrophile pulchella. Acacia terminalis, Lissanthe strigosa, Styphelia laeta, Hakea sericea, Pimelia linifolia, Grevillea sericea.

Groundcover: Themeda australis, Astroloma humifusum, Dianella revoluta, Aristida warburgii, Eragrostis curvula..

Nationally/Regionally Significant Plants: Allocasuarina glareicola.

Threats: The plants are growing 50m from Heathcote Road on land owned by the Roads and Traffic Authority. Many tracks dissect the area and rubbish dumping is a problem. Vehicular access to these tracks could be limited fairly easily by closing the Heathcote Road end of the tracks. As the site also contains the only record of Allocasuarina glareicola outside the Castlereagh region measures to prevent more damage should be actively pursued.

Site 10

Is a bushland remnant at the Taubmans factory on Birmingham Avenue, Villawood. Grid Reference 0313800 6249500. Two mature and 3 immature plants were found at the edge of a regenerating woodland. The 2 mature plants were growing to 1.5m and possessed fruit.

Dominant Species:

Canopy: E. sclerophylla, E. parramattensis, E. resinifera?

Understory: Melaleuca decora, Dodonea triquetra, Hakea sericea, Kunzea ambigua, Melaleuca erubescens?

Groundcover: Themeda australis.

Nationally/Regionally Significant Plants: None.

Threats: Urban/Industrial expansion.