Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus) Issues Paper

Department of the Environment and Heritage, May 2005
ISBN 0 6425 5082 4


Alava, M. 2002. Conservation and Management of Whale Sharks in the Philippines. In: Shark Conference 2002: Sustainable Utilization and Conservation of Sharks, Taipei, Taiwan, May 13-16, 2002.

Cavanagh, R.D. (ed), Kyne, P.M. (ed), Fowler, S.L. (ed), Musick, J.A., (ed), Bennett M.B. (ed). 2003. The Conservation Status of Australian Chondrichthyans: Report of the IUCN Shark Specialist Group Australia and Oceania Regional Red List Workshop. The University of Queensland, School of Biomedical Sciences, Brisbane, Australia. 170pp

Chang, W.-B., Leu, M.-Y. and Fang, L.-S. 1997. Embryos of the Whale Shark Rhincodon typus: Early growth and size distribution. Copeia Vol. 97, No. 2 pp. 444-446. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Allen Press, Kansas, USA.

Chen, C.T., Liu, K.M., Joung, S.L. 1997. Preliminary Report on Taiwan's Whale Shark fishery. TRAFFIC Bulletin, 17(1). pp53-57

Chen, V.Y. & Phipps, M.J. 2002. Management and Trade of Whale Shark in Taiwan. A Traffic East Asia Report. Traffic East Asia-Taipei.

Colman, J.G. 1997a. A review of the biology and ecology of the Whale Shark. Journal of Fish Biology. Vol 51. The Fisheries society of the British Isles. pp1219-1234

Colman, J.G. 1997b. Whale Shark Interaction Management, with particular reference to Ningaloo Marine Park 1997-2007. Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management. W.A.

Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4 Sharks of the World. United Nations Development Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome

Convention on International Trade in Wild Species of Flora and Fauna, 2004 http://www.cites.org/eng/disc/text.shtml#IV>

Convention on International Trade in Wild Species of Flora and Fauna, Prop. 12.35, 2000. http://www.cites.org/eng/cop/12/prop/E12-P35.pdf

Convention on Migratory Species, 2004 http://www.wcmc.org.uk/cms/

Davis, D., Banks, S., Birtles, A., Valentine, P. & Cuthill, M. 1997. Whale Sharks in Ningaloo Marine Park: managing tourism in an Australian marine protected area. Tourism Management, Vol. 18, No. 5. Elsevier Science Ltd. Great Britain. pp. 259-271

Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2003 http://www.deh.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/r-typus.html

Eckert, S.A. & Stewart, B.S. 2001. Telemetry and satellite tracking of Whale Sharks, Rhincodon typus, in the Sea of Cortez, Mexico, and the north Pacific Ocean. Environmental Biology of fishes. 60. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Netherlands. pp 299-308

Eckert, S.A., Dolar, L.L., Kooyman, G.L., Perrin, W. & Rahman, A. 2002. Movements of Whale Sharks (Rhincodon typus) in South-east Asian waters as determined by satellite telemetry. The Zoological Society of London. 257. pp111-115

Fisheries Global Information System, 2004. http://www.fao.org/figis/servlet/FiRefServlet?ds=species&fid=2801

India & Philippines. CITES Appendix II nomination of the Whale Shark, Rhincodon typus. Prop. 12.35. Available online from: http://www.cites.org/eng/cop/12/prop/E12-P35.pdf

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2003. http://www.cites.org/eng/cop/12/prop/E12-P35.pdf

Iwasaki, Y. 1970. On the distribution and environment of the Whale Shark, Rhincodon typus, in skipjack fishing grounds in the western Pacific Ocean, Journal of the College of Marine Science and Technology, Tokai University 4. pp37-51

Joung, S.J., Chen, C.T., Clark, E., Uchida, S. & Huang, W.Y.P. 1996. The Whale Shark, Rhincodon typus, is a livebearer - 300 embryos found in one 'megamamma' supreme. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 46 (3). pp 219-223

Kukuyev, E.I. 1996. The new finds in recently born individuals of the Whale Shark Rhiniodon typus (Rhiniodontidae) in the Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Ichthyology 36, 203-205.

Last, P.R., Stevens, J.D. 1994. Sharks and Rays of Australia. CSIRO. Australia.

Martin, R. Aidan. 2004. Hearing and Vibration Detection. World Wide Web Publication, http://www.elasmo-research.org/education/white_shark/hearing.htm

Norman, B.M. 1999. Aspects of the biology and ecotourism industry of the Whale Shark Rhincodon typus in north-western Australia. MPhil. Thesis (Murdoch University, Western Australia).

Norman, B.M. 2000. In: 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Xviii+61 pp. (Book & CD).

Norman, B. 2002. CITES Identification Manual: Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus Smith 1829). Commonwealth of Australia.

Norman, B.M. 2004. Review of the current conservation concerns for the Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus): A regional perspective. Technical Report (NHT Coast & Clean Seas Project No. 2127) 74pp

Pai, M.V., Nandakumar, G. & Telang, K.Y. 1983. On a Whale Shark, Rhincodon typus Smith landed off Karwar, Karnataka. Indian Journal of Fisheries 30.

O'Sullivan, J.B. & T. Mitchell. 2000. A fatal attack on a Whale Shark Rhincodon typus, by killer whales Orcinus orca off Bahia de Los Angeles, Baja California. Abstract: American Elasmobranch Society Whale Shark Symposium, June 2000. La Paz, Mexico.

Pogonoski, J.J., Pollard, D.A. & Paxton, J.R. 2002. Conservation Overview and Action Plan for Australian Threatened and Potentially Threatened Marine and Estuarine Fishes. Commonwealth of Australia.

Taylor, J. G. 1994. Whale Sharks, the giants of Ningaloo Reef. Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 176 pp.

Taylor, J.G. 1996. Seasonal Occurrence, Distribution and Movements of the Whale Shark, Rhincodon typus, at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Marine & Freshwater Research. 47. pp. 637-642

Uchida, S., Toda, M., Kamei, Y., and Teruya, H. 2000. The husbandry of 16 Whale Sharks Rhincodon typus from 1980 to 1998 at the Okinawa Expo Aquarium. Abstract. American Elasmobranch Society Whale Shark Symposium, La Paz, Mexico, June 15 2000.

Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management, 2003. http://www.calm.wa.gov.au/tourism/whalesharks_splash.html

Wilson, S.G. & Newbound, D.R. 2001. Two Whale Shark Faecal samples from Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Bulletin of Marine Science, 68 (2).

Wilson, S.G., Taylor, J.G. & Pearce, A.F. 2001. The seasonal aggregation of Whale Sharks at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia: currents, migrations and the El Nino/ Southern Oscillation. Environmental Biology of Fishes 61. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Netherlands. pp1-11

Wintner, S.P. 2000. Preliminary study of vertebral growth rings in the Whale Shark, Rhincodon typus, from the east coast of South Africa. Environmental Biology of Fishes 59. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Netherlands. pp441-451