Commonwealth heritage places in the Australian Capital Territory
Cameron Offices is a large office complex in Belconnen, Canberra. Designed by prominent architect, John Andrews AO, in the late 20th century Brutalist Style, it was built between 1970 and 1977 and its low-rise rectangular shape was a break from traditional tower style office blocks.
Three of the nine wings and a bridge have been listed as representative of the complex.
Duntroon House is one of three rural mansions that pre-date the development of the nation's capital in the area. The estates were acquired by the Commonwealth Government to establish the new capital.
The house and grounds were originally owned by Robert and Marianne Campbell, and is an important part of the area's 19th-century history.
As the Institute of Anatomy, this was one of the key buildings in the first phase of Canberra's development. It was built to broaden national interest and establish a tradition of archives and collections in the national capital, a tradition that continues to be promoted by ScreenSound Australia.
Australia's first Federal Parliament building was designed as the grandest element and central focus of a fully planned capital city. The building is intimately associated with the political history of Australia, from its opening in 1927 until the move to new Parliament House in 1988. The building has been the focus of Commonwealth Government for generations of Australians.
The building is a good example of Inter-War Stripped Classical architectural style. The various formal gardens, courtyards, pergolas and verandahs reflect the ideals of a planned garden city.
This national shrine to Australians who lost their lives and suffered through war is an important part of Australia's national identity.
The Memorial's success as a shrine, an architectural form and as part of Canberra's urban plan is due to its special association with the lives and works of a number of significant people, including the Memorial's founders Charles Bean, John Treloar and Henry Gullet and architects Emil Sodersteen and John Crust.
The national capital's first administrative centre prior to the construction of Walter Burley Griffin's plan, Acton Conservation Area included the Canberra Community Hospital, the first site of the High Commission for the United Kingdom and accommodation for public servants and their families.
A former pastoral homestead, Gunghalin Complex is important for its association with Federation, as one of three rural mansion estates acquired by the Federal Government to develop future sites for national institutions.
The complex is one of several late 19th century country estates that pre-date the national capital, and demonstrate periods of rural prosperity in the area. The setting of the homestead is typical of the period, with curving carriageway leading to the former homestead. The sandstone wing is noted for its period design and fine interior detailing.
The site has been successfully adapted for use as a scientific wildlife research station, with the laboratories integrated into the original structures.
The oldest constructed building in Canberra, dating from the 1909 surveying expedition to the site of the future capital, the Surveyor's Hut is located at the base of Capital Hill.
The site is constructed from concrete and features a corrugated iron roof, and remains a functional building. It is closely associated with C.R. Scrivener, Canberra's Surveyor, who mapped the region and later worked closely with Walter Burley Griffin in the preparation of the 1918 plan for Capital.
The precinct is significant as the earliest example of Commonwealth scientific endeavour located in Canberra and reflects the vision for Canberra as the home of scientific institutions in addition to government administration.
The area comprises approximately 40 hectares on the summit of Mount Stromlo, and despite extensive damage in the January 2003 bushfire contains significant heritage elements, including the remnant structure of the telescope dome buildings, the Oddie Telescope, housing for scientists, administration buildings and workshops.
The observatory was initially conceived of by the astronomer Dr W.G. Duffield to fill a solar recording gap in the western Pacific.
The National Library is part of the significant cultural landscape of the Parliamentary Triangle. It occupies a prominent place on the western side of the Triangle, marking one of Canberra's landmark features. The building was constructed between 1961 and 1968, and was the first of the permanent purpose-built institution in the Parliamentary Triangle. It features artworks by Tom Bass and Leonard French built into the structure.
The Library is regarded as one of the finest works of Australian architect Walter Bunning and is valued by the local community for its cultural use as a library and repository for its national collection.
The collection includes a valuable book collection, manuscripts, printed materials, film, tape recordings and paintings.
The vista is the central designed landscape of Canberra and is the core of the most ambitious examples of 20th century urban design in Australia. It is the setting for government, judicial and cultural institutions also included on the Commonwealth Heritage List, such as Old Parliament House, East Block Government Offices, the John Gorton Building, High Court of Australia.
The 260-hectare area includes important parklands and gardens, such as the gardens of Old Parliament House and the Sculpture Garden of the National Gallery that enhance the significance of the landscape setting.
- Residence Asset C8, Campbell
- Waller Lodge
- Apple shed
- Commandants House (Bridges House)
- Gwynn House (Residence Asset C12)
- Sinclair-MacLagan House (Residence Asset C13)
- Barnard House (residence Asset C14)
- Hosking House (Residence Asset C15)
- Hiscock House (Residence Asset C7)
- Haydon House (Residence Asset B7)
- Parade Ground and Associated Buildings Group
- Anzac Memorial Chapel of St Paul
- General Bridges Grave
RMC Duntroon has historical significance as Australia's first military college since Federation and displays its developmental states to led to it becoming the nation's leading military college. Development started in 1937 on the Campbell estate, with many building adapted for college use.
The conservation area has aesthetic significance through the patterns of architectural features, its hillside setting and bushland environment, garden features, streetscapes, military Parade Ground and Duntroon House.
RMC Duntroon is valued by its graduates and staff, with many choosing ANZAC Chapel as a venue for marriage ceremonies. The site is visited by many Canberra residents for military performances and open days.
Also known as Shappere House, the site was constructed as the southern gatehouse to the grounds of the 19th-century Duntroon homestead. It is an example of the Victorian Gothic Revival architectural style, and features steeply pitched roofs and timber frame windows.
The residence was constructed as part of the original homestead and was expanded in 1913 to house RMC Duntroon faculty staff and has been in continual use for military personnel.
The small stone and timber building is part of the original Duntroon homestead. It is built in the Victorian Rustic Gothic style, and is the only surviving structure of the former complex around Duntroon House.
The house has architectural significance as an example of an early 20th century residence. The building was designed to house principal officers of the Royal Military College and has had continuous use as a senior officers residence.
The house is part of a unified group contributing to the eastern Duntroon Conservation area. In the mid-1930s Gwynn House was occupied by Major Casey and his family.
The two-storey residence is a rough rendered concrete block building with a roughly centred front door and a verandah to the right side. It is one of four houses in Parnell Road that are of near identical floor plan and elevation and present a distinct unified character to Parnell Road. The houses have been described as being in the Federation Free Style.
Barnard House has historical significance as a senior officers residence built in 1911-12 for the Professor of Mathematics at the college and was one of the first permanent residences.
Hosking House was one of five officers quarters commenced in October 1911, constructed of concrete blocks, and completed during 1912 and 1913. The Professor of Physics, Professor R. Hosking, initially occupied No 4 Parnell Road.
The residence was initially used by the officers of the Department of Home Affairs who were responsible for the construction of temporary accommodation at RMC Duntroon and it was proposed that it be used for a single officer's quarters when building operations ceased. This was not to be the case as the residence was first occupied in September 1912 by Honorary Lieutenant C. Hiscock, the second Quartermaster at the College.
The residence at 4 Robert Campbell Road was built to house the College's first Professor of Modern Languages, Professor J.F.M. Haydon, who came from Scotch College Melbourne, to fill the post in January 1912. The house was completed in 1913.
The Parade Ground is important in the execution of military customs and techniques that have formed Australian military for many decades. The area is enclosed by buildings that form the ceremonial centre of the complex.
Completed in 1966, the Anzac Memorial chapel is representative of worship for various Christian denominations, and features a Catholic chapel and another for Anglican and other Protestant faiths, in contrast to other single denomination military Churches around Australia.
The design includes a radical plan shape, unbroken straight lines and a spire reminiscent of a church tower.
This memorial honours Brigadier-General Bridges, the first Commandant of RMC Duntroon and Commander of the Australian Infantry Force that landed at Gallipoli on 25 April 1915.
Bridges chose the site of Australia's first military college and served at RMC Duntroon from 1910. He was shot by a sniper on the morning of 1 May 1915 and died en route to Egypt. The memorial was designed in 1916 by Walter Burley Griffin and was completed in 1920.
The Lodge was constructed in 1925-27 to be the official residence of the Prime Minister of Australia. It has been associated with the lives of 14 of Australia's 25 prime ministers and the political events of their terms.
The two-storey, rendered brick building is a fine example of the Colonial Revival style, with refined Georgian detailing. It features a symmetrical facade, arches, round-headed windows and corner porches. The building has undergone periodic adaptation and renovations to suit the changing needs of the families that have inhabited it.
The area is the Commonwealth's centre for forestry and timber research in Australia. It is a complex of buildings, arboretum, nursery and tennis courts that form an important national scientific institution. The precinct is associated with the international interest in forestry and is important for an array of scientific achievements, including the pinus radiata breeding program as part of the Australian Tree Seed program.
The former Bomb Dump Buildings were constructed at RAAF Base Fairbairn as a result of the inclusion of the airfield in coastal defence operations during World War II.
The Gardens are important to understanding the operations of Old Parliament House in its time as the centre of Commonwealth Government in Australia. The Gardens are linked to the daily life of politicians and parliamentary staff as a place of relaxation, recreation and a venue for special events. They are located on the House of Representatives and Senate sides of the building.
The Gardens were designed to contribute to the planned aesthetic of the Parliamentary Triangle and feature a display of roses in colourful coordinated arrangements, many of which were donated by prominent Australians. In 2001, the original hedge was removed and replaced with Cupressus hybrid varieties.
The Precinct is significant due to its continued occupation by the Australian Defence Force, and for its role in the management of Australia's involvement in the Vietnam War, Gulf War and general defence matters.
The focus of the Precinct is the Defence nucleus and war memorials, including the distinctive obelisk shape of the Australian-American Memorial. An underground tunnel links aspects of the Precinct, demonstrating the high-level security arrangements that have been employed at the site at various times. Many of the building are in the style of late 20th century stripped classical design.
The building is associated with the period of early scientific endeavour in Canberra, and is significant as the first purpose built laboratory complex for the CSIRO and one of five Commonwealth built laboratories prior to 1950. The area includes the building wings, built in 1929-30 and the central block, built in 1956.
The building is associated with the internationally recognised Australian National Insect Collection.
Yarralumla was chosen as the site for a temporary vice-regal residence, but has been occupied by Australia's governors-general since 1927. The area includes Government House, gardens and grounds that date from the 19th century.
The main house has been modified on several occasions, demonstrating the changing needs of the position over time and several of the rooms contain examples of rare Australian Art Deco interiors. The smaller buildings in the surrounds are important as they reflect Canberra building styles over the years and the needs of vice-regal staff.
The office is currently home to the Attorney-General's Department, and has a long association with the seat of Government. The Patent Office was moved from Melbourne to Canberra in 1932, at a time when developing the national capital was being called into question.
The building played an important role as Australia's repository of world information on scientific and technological innovation from 1941 to 1971. From 1946 to 63 it housed the Federal Police, the ACT Supreme Court, and the British High Commission.
The Gardens are important for cultivating rare and endangered native plant species and as a centre for research and teaching.
The Gardens are highly valued by residents of Canberra and Australians nation-wide. They bring together displays of natural environments from around Australia, such as the Rain Forest Gully that represents the geographic transect of Australia's eastern coast.
The redwood plantation in Pialligo is an important horticultural research and teaching site. It is the largest redwood forest in Australia and demonstrates one of Walter Burley Griffin's original landscape concepts for the national capital.
The area occupies 12 hectares, north-east of the intersection of Glenora Drive and Pialligo Avenue.
The area comprises the former school building, former museum building and formal landscape surroundings and was built to train professional foresters for federal and state forest services and research projects.
Central to the main building is a magnificent domed hall that uses crafted Australian timbers from various states for the panelling, flooring, and ribs for the dome.
The house was established as the residence of the principal of the Australian Forestry School, and is unique for its architectural style and backdrop of Westbourne woods and surrounding pine and cypress trees.
The house is associated with Richard Gardiner Casey, Treasurer with the Lyons Government and later Governor-General. The house has also served as the headquarters for the Canadian High Commission for more than 30 years.
The architectural style is unusual for a Canberra building of its time as it features Art Deco detailing in a Georgian Revival design.
The statue commemorates King George V, Australia's third head of state at the time of the opening of Provisional Parliament House (Old Parliament House) in 1927. The statue was also a well-known meeting place for Canberrans visiting the area.
The memorial was sculptured by Rayner Hoff, who played an important role in the development of Australian art and sculpture.
The foundation stones of the never-completed Commencement Column are an important commemoration of the selection of the site for the national capital.
The stones were laid at the official naming ceremony of the site in 1913.
This special place pays tribute to Australians who were imprisoned by the Japanese military forces in Changi Prisoner of War Camp. The Chapel was constructed in 1944 by former prisoners of war, originally as a Catholic chapel and has since come to represent a national memorial to all Australian prisoners of war. The simply designed Chapel features materials that were recycled or found, symbolising courage in extreme adversity.
Part of the strong symmetrical planning of the Parliamentary Triangle, the Carillon is an example of the late 20th century Brutalist style. It uses strong shapes, diagonal roof lines, large areas of blank walls and vertical windows.
The Carillon and the Captain Cook Memorial Jet mark the radiating boundaries of the Parliamentary Triangle.
The site of the Belconnen Naval Radio Station is one of the largest remaining areas of the danthonia grassland in the ACT. The grassland is the essential habitat for the day-flying golden sun moth, synemon plana. This species is endangered in the ACT and is known to inhabit only 32 sites across the country, including those in the ACT, Victoria and NSW.
Completed in 1939 the Transmitting Station as the most powerful naval wireless station in the British Empire and the largest naval or commercial station in the Southern Hemisphere.
This is an example of Australian Naval Communication technical development in the inter-war period, the site features three 600-foot aerial masts and a 44,000 hz low-frequency transmitter that enabled Australia to communicate with the British Merchant Fleet anywhere in the world.
An innovative design using mainly native plants in the style of the Australian Native Landscape design that originated in the 1960s, the garden reflects an awareness of the importance of the natural environment in the urban and public landscaping.
Visitors to the garden can find some of the finest examples of sculpture in the garden surroundings including Rhodin's Burghers of Calais, Fog Sculpture by Fujiko Nakaya and Penelope by Emille-Antoine Bourdelle.
Australia's first national gardening project, the National Rose Garden was planned in 1926 and open to the public in 1933.
The favourable climate has allowed Australian cultivated and international roses to flourish, and has contributed to a formal area open to the public.
The gardens are in two parts, set symmetrically either side of the grassed terrace in front of Old Parliament House. The National Rose Garden is distinct from the Old Parliament House Gardens that are located on the Senate and House of Representative sides of the building.
A secure bunker beneath the then Foreign Affairs building, this unique space to was designed to provide a secure environment for Government communications activities. The area was used between 1978 and 1996 and is significant for its association with Australia's Cold War activities.
The bunker is constructed from 450-millimetre thick reinforced concrete and has a single entry point. It is a rare example of underground building design that incorporates environmental provisions to accommodate staff, such as murals and works of art.
Formerly known as the Administrative Building, this is a distinctive part of the Parliamentary Triangle designed in the inter-war Stripped Classical Style. The building was planned in 1924, designed in 1946 and competed in 1956.
Constructed between 1911 and 1913, the Lennox House provided the first accommodation for Government staff in Canberra.
It was converted into a commercial guesthouse in 1935, housed Government staff once more from 1939, and by 1960 had been acquired by the Australian National University as student accommodation.
The complex was a focus for social activities, and was connected to the Canberra Cricket Club, Canberra Lawn Tennis Club, Rifle Club and the Canberra Community Players.
Block G, within the site, is believed to be the second oldest structure in Canberra, and was built as a dining area for residents.
Constructed between 1963-65, this was Australia's first national central bank, evolving from the separation of the central banking function from the commercial branch of the Commonwealth Bank.
Now part of the law courts precinct, it features grey marble cladding, and is recognised for the elegance of its minimalist style.
Constructed in 1939-40 in the lead up to World War II, it served as a drill hall for activities for the 3 Battalion Royal New South Wales Regiment, the 7 Australian Light Horse and for training activities for cadets.
It was later adapted as a community public radio station, where Radio 2XX and Radio ANU were broadcast. In addition it was successfully adapted into a gallery space, and was an annexe of the National Gallery of Australia, and as an art venue for the Australian National University, showing exhibitions of Australian and international artists.
The Canberra School of Music is the product of the vision of Ernest Llewellyn, MBE, the pre-eminent Australian violinist, conductor and music teacher, who was the School's founding director.
Built in 1976 the building has a strong cubist architectural style, and is consistent with late 20th century Brutalist style.
The School is prominent in Canberra's cultural life, and is renowned as a concert venue for local and visiting artists.
Constructed by the Australian National University in a time of financial hardship, University House is an innovative design incorporating everyday materials, such as rendered walls, timber and steel window frames, terracotta roof tiles and terrazzo paving.
This was the first major building constructed at the ANU and since 1945 has played an important role as the residential and social centre for University staff, students and former graduates.
The unique design of Toad Hall marks the change in university culture in the late 1970s. As a student residence it aimed to provide a more informal and independent living arrangement for its occupants. The building was designed by the internationally acclaimed architect John Andrews AM who was appointed as a member of the Order of Australia for his contributions to Australian architecture.
The name of the building was chosen by students and pays homage to the Sullivan's Creek willow trees, amongst which the building resides, like the home of Toad of Toad Hall in Kenneth Graham's The Wind in the Willows.
East Block is recognised for its connection with Federation as part of the Parliament House Secretariat Group that formed the essential Government facilities in Canberra's early development. The group also includes West Block and Provisional Parliament House (Old Parliament House).
East Block accommodated Canberra's first Post Office and telephone exchange, providing services to local residents as well as Parliament. The building's basement contains a pneumatic tube for sending and receiving correspondence that links East Block and Old Parliament House. The building is today occupied by the National Archives of Australia.
Like East Block this was one of the earliest Government buildings in the city. The unpretentious style of the building is a feature of the designed landscape of the Parliamentary Triangle.
The Dugout was constructed during World War II as bomb shelter and like West Block accommodated international communication functions during the war.
The 1.75-hectare area between Windsor Walk, State Circle and Kings Avenue includes a formal arrangement of oak trees.
The inaugural planting ceremony was part of the opening of Provisional Parliament House and was performed by HRH the Duke of York on 10 May 1927. The tree planted by the Duke is an English oak (Quercus Robur), brought to Australia as a live tree from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London. The Duke also planted an Australian bunya pine (Araucaria Bidwillii) at the same ceremony, located opposite the English oak on the northern side of Kings Avenue.
The site is currently proposed for divestment for development of office accommodation. Protection of the plantation is part of the development is being taken into account in the divestment proposal.
The limestone outcrops extend 80-100 metres along the eastern shore of Acton Peninsula and dates from the late Silurian period, approximately 425 million years ago.
Quartz rich gravel sit on top of the limestone and have formed holes that indicate the Molongolo River once flowed over this site.
The story of European settlement can be traced in the area, through the group of buildings of the former Canberra Hospital, including
- the Isolation Ward
- Medical Superintendents Residence
- H Block
The building serves as the Embassy of the Vatican in Australia. The focus of the design is the 'sheltering roof', typical of the architect Enrico Taglietti. The building's design was awarded the Certificate of Merit for Architecture in 1979, 1980 and 1981.
The Precinct occupies a 17-hectare site in the north-east corner of the Parliamentary Zone. It includes the:
- High Court
- High Court forecourt
- High Court ceremonial ramp
- High Court underground carpark
- High Court roof garden
- National Gallery
- Sculpture Garden
The area is regarded as an expression of excellent contemporary architectural and landscape design.
Sites included in the Precinct are listed individually in the Commonwealth Heritage List.
Representative of Australia's justice system, the High Court building was designed by Colin Madigan and built between 1975 and 1980. It is an essential component in the Australian constitution and has been the setting for landmark legal cases.
The creation of the National Gallery and adjoining Sculpture Garden was the culmination of a long held ambition that the Commonwealth play a leading role in collecting and presenting art, particularly Australian art, to the nation.
The building was constructed between 1973 and 1982 and has aesthetic value, as seen in the triangular spatial arrangement of the interior design that provides an effective exhibition space.
Established in 1929, the Insectary was the centre for veterinary entomology and research into the biological control of weeds by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR, the predecessor to the CSIRO). The buildings were designed as open-air insectaries that were used until the early 1970s.
Designed to grow plants in controlled conditions, the CSIRO Phytotron built in 1962 was one of the major structures of its kind in the world.
The design was influenced by similar structures in Pasedena, USA and Paris, France, however the building was the first to use large controlled temperature glass houses in combination with control environment cabinets and solar panels.
Founded in 1911, this was the first college established for training Australian naval officers. The first intake of students at Jervis Bay commenced in January 1915.
During World War II Jervis Bay was used extensively by the Navy, Air Force and the Army. This included a RAAF rehabilitation unit that was established on the eastern side of the Quarterdeck. From 1944-46 the facility treated injured airmen and ex-prisoners of war.
Built in 1859, the lighthouse was part of a navigational network along the Australian coastline. Despite opinions of mariners who preferred the northern headland of Jervis Bay, Cape St George was the favoured site.
Colonial Architect Alexander Dawson and a surveyor were requested to examine the area around Cape St George for a suitable site. Dawson and Assistant Surveyor Millinton visited the area and produced a sketch map showing two possible sites for the lighthouse, the favoured one 4 miles south of Jervis Bay, at a height of 180 feet above sea level and the other 1.5 miles further north, on a higher but more obscured site. Despite the preference of the Colonial Architect, construction was commenced on the latter site in 1859. Confusion as to the approval process for the site and then the actual location of the lighthouse building led to complaints from mariners and an inquiry by the Pilot Board, the body responsible for coastal lighting, before the lighthouse was completed in 1860. The disused lighthouse tower was destroyed by naval guns in the early 20th century.
This settlement on the eastern edge of Sussex Inlet on the New South Wales south coast takes in several guesthouses, a cemetery and outbuildings including boat sheds and other services buildings on the waters edge.
The land of the settlement was taken up by the Ellmoos family from Denmark, who built on the site from 1880 and opened the first guesthouse on the south coast between Port Hacking and Twofold Bay in 1896 following the arrival of the railway at Bomaderry.
The gardens were established in 1951 as a frost-free annexe to the then Canberra Botanic Gardens (now the National Botanic Gardens), principally for the purposes of supplementing and complementing the National collection in Canberra. The original site selected covered 2 hectares however by the 1960s, when the first plants were introduced, this area had been extended to 52 hectares and now covers 80 hectares.
Jervis Bay Territory is valued for its natural, Indigenous and cultural heritage values.
Home to the Koori people of Wreck Bay, the territory has a large number of prehistoric Aboriginal sites including rock shelters, stone-flaking sites and axe-sharpening grooves as well as shell middens.
In terms of flora, there is a high diversity of plants including 625 indigenous plant species occurring in 38 communities on Bhewerre Peninsula and in 14 communities on Bowen Island.
The waters of Jervis Bay contain the largest and deepest beds of the seagrass strapweed in New South Wales-significant as a valuable nursery, spawning ground and feeding ground for many fish species and for their richness of macroinvertebrate species.
Jervis Bay Territory supports two mammals, one frog and 18 bird species listed as vulnerable or endangered, either nationally or in New South Wales.