Commonwealth heritage places in New South Wales
The Cape Byron Lighthouse is dramatically located on the top of a windswept cliff at the most easterly point of the Australian mainland. Built in 1901, it is only the second lighthouse to be built from prefabricated concrete blocks that eliminated the traditional need to quarry stone on site. It has been associated with east coast shipping since the start of the 20th century.
This property was acquired in 1904 and a drill hall built two years later. As most other drill halls were rented, constructing a drill hall indicates Armidale's regional importance at that time. The hall and the former gun shed were built before their designs were standardised in 1913, making them unusual examples of weatherboard military buildings. The depot is also significant for its association with early Commonwealth military training, and for its links with Armidale's Light Horse military history.
Developed from the 1860s to the 1920s, this precinct includes a homestead, garden, woolshed, shearers' quarters, sheep dip, and burial site. It was part of the wave of development of the Riverina during the 19th century and played an important role in the development of stud flocks and in advancing wheat growing in this part of NSW. The scattering of outbuildings, their various modes of construction and their materials typify pastoral complexes in the region.
Junee grew into a major rail centre following the opening of the railway line at the town in 1878, the completion of a branch line from Junee Junction to Narrandera in 1881, and the construction of railway workshops. The town's growth was rapid in the 1880s and included the building of the town's post office with its unusual pavement-wide verandah.
Dating from the 1880s, this prominent post office features an asymmetrically-placed corner tower and an arcade of five arches facing the street. This building reflects Hay's prominence and development during the later 19th century when the town was the leading centre of the Riverina region.
The Forbes Post Office is a well-scaled and substantial civic building that was built in 1881. It sits together with a number of other important civic structures including the town hall and is a reminder of the prosperity of Forbes in the late 19th century, as the town moved from gold town to thriving rural centre.
This granite lighthouse, perched on the island's treeless terrain, was designed by James Barnet, the colonial architect who played a leading role in the development of NSW architecture. It was officially opened in 1881 and became part of the 'highway' lights around the Australian coast, but also was significant for its service to local coastal shipping.
Lying in 11 metres of water about 1 kilometre south-east of Broulee, the TSS RAAF John Penn hit a reef off Burrewarra Point on 8 November 1879, and sank as it was being towed to Moruya. It was built in the late 1860s, at a time of great innovation in maritime technology, and featured some of the latest and most innovative marine steam engines of the time. The remains of these may be able to shed light on maritime engine development of the period.
Goulburn's elegant and prominent post office was built in 1880-81 and is a landmark in the town's main street. It features a four-storey tower with a clock in the uppermost storey. Its substantial proportions clearly reflect Goulburn's status in the late 19th century as a thriving regional centre.
Fort Scratchley, and Flagstaff Hill on which it stands, have considerable historical significance for several reasons. In 1797, coal was discovered at the base of the hill on which Fort Scratchley now stands. The area went on to become Australia's first coal mining site. It was also here that one of the first navigational aids was installed to safeguard the flow of ships servicing the coastal ports as well as the inner Hunter River system. From the beginning, the little settlement and its precious coal needed protection and Flagstaff Hill became the first site of a garrison and battery, including the notorious Fort Fiddlesticks and the upgraded Fort Scratchley. It is one of the most complete early defence sites surviving today.
These buildings are dramatically located on the top of a prominent hilltop. Dating mainly from the 1880s, the buildings include former barracks, commandant's cottage, a guard house and laboratory. Together they form a good example of a 'closed' fortress - one of the very few in NSW. Changes through the years reflect the varying defence needs and strategic concerns over a lengthy period.
Built from dressed sandstone in 1858, the simple circular tower of Nobby's Lighthouse is the earliest surviving lighthouse in the state. It is included in Newcastle's Coat of Arms. Its construction was part of an important move to establish navigational aids along the New South Wales coast from the late 1850s.
The 31-hectare Fort Wallace site is a major component of the integrated system of defence for the Newcastle Fortress Area. It was designed to protect Newcastle Harbour and its industries - coal during World War I and steel during World War II. Its many structures include gun emplacements with their magazines, a powerhouse and tunnels, an observation tower, wireless room, casualty station, a plotting room and an underground plotting room. Although developed initially in the 19th century, this fort reflects both early defence structures and the changes made since, including those required to meet the needs of two World Wars.
The site for this base was chosen in 1939, partly because of its proximity to Newcastle's steel mills and coalmines. Following World War II, it was identified as one of ten mainland RAAF bases considered strategically important to Australia's defence, and it then became a peacetime base for the RAAF fighter wing. In 1988 the base was made the headquarters for the Tactical Fighter Group. The Williamtown base includes runways, Bellman Hangars, control tower, fuel tanks, living quarters and storage areas.
Built in 1878 by the son of explorer John Blaxland, this group of buildings and plantings of mature pines and conifers includes a homestead, dam, stable, calf shed, pump house, creamery, machinery shed, hay shed, blacksmith's shop, fowl run and garden. The weatherboard homestead was built at a time when timber was starting to compete with masonry as a construction material. The group is significant as a pastoral homestead of the period.
This graceful lighthouse was built 1875 on the summit of an abrupt headland, 60 metres above the sea. It is one of only two to be built with an external stairway providing access to the tower. It was designed by the influential colonial architect, James Barnet, and is part of the movement to establish navigational aids along the NSW coast.
Point Perpendicular Lighthouse was built on the southern tip of Jervis Bay in 1899, replacing an earlier, incorrectly sited lighthouse. It was the first lighthouse in NSW to be constructed of pre-cast concrete blocks made from an aggregate of locally quarried stone and bedded in cement mortar. The lightstation reflects the evolution of navigational aids along the NSW coast and the economic development of the surrounding area.
Covering an area of 4040 hectares south of Currarong, the Beecroft Peninsula is currently a defence bombing range. It is significant for a number of reasons including the high diversity of vegetation communities surviving in the area - from heath to rainforest. It retains the largest area of heath remaining on the NSW south coast supporting up to 46 species of heath. The area also supports 35 bird species listed on international migratory bird treaties including the short-tailed shearwater and the white-breasted sea eagle. Also a part of the peninsula are the Point Perpendicular lightstation and large numbers of middens, as well as rock shelters with Indigenous paintings and stencils on the walls.
Covering an area of about 18 hectares, Cockatoo Island is the largest island in Sydney Harbour. Its uses have changed over time with structures built on the island including a convict prison, military quarters, underground grain silos, shipbuilding and dockyard facilities. The mess hall and the other convict-era buildings form one of the most complete groups of convict structures in Australia. The first steel warship to be built in Australia was constructed on this island. During World War II Cockatoo Island became the primary shipbuilding and dockyard facility in the Pacific following the fall of Singapore. Specific places with heritage significance on this island include:
- Prison Barracks Precinct
- Power House / Pump House
- Sutherland Dock
- Fitzroy Dock
- Biloela Group
- Underground Grain Silos
Dating from 1839-57, this area is one of the most complete groups of convict structures in Australia. Several of the buildings in the precinct were designed by Colonel George Barney, who was the Commanding Royal Engineer. This precinct includes:
- Mess Hall (former) - dating from 1847-51
- Military Guard Room - built in 1847
- Barracks Block - built in the 1840s.
Built in 1918, the powerhouse provided all of the island's electrical power. It contains the most extensive and rare collection of early Australian electrical, hydraulic power and pumping equipment in the country. Its brick chimney is a landmark in Sydney Harbour.
Built 1890, this dock was said to be the biggest dry dock in the world. It was also one of Australia's greatest engineering projects. It was enlarged over time reflecting the development of warship construction and ship building more generally, during the 20th century.
Dating from 1857, this is Australia's oldest surviving dry dock it is also one of the largest convict-era public works surviving in Sydney.
This group of buildings was built on the summit of Cockatoo Island in the 1840s. It includes Biloela House, a modest cottage, Clerk of Petty Sessions Cottage, and some of the island's grain silos.
Excavated in 1839-40, the silos are believed to be the only major group of convict-cut rock silos in Australia. They show advanced stonemasonry skills.
The School of Musketry, built in 1898, was the first official training centre for infantry forces in New South Wales. In 1911 it became the first National School of Musketry for the Australian Army. The Officers' Mess was constructed in 1927 as part of the ongoing development of the site by the military in the late 1920s. The buildings are the two oldest buildings at the Randwick Army Barracks and are still used by the Army.
The original customs house was built here in 1844, adjacent to the site of the First Fleet's landing in 1788. It was extended in 1880. Five years later, the building was partially dismantled and in large part replaced (elements from the 1844 building remain making it the oldest surviving customs house in Australia). The resultant six-storey, mainly sandstone building reflects a cohesive whole, despite the fact that it is the work of three colonial architects whose work on the building was separated by considerable periods of time.
This 80-hectare headland includes a World War II coastal defence site - the Boora Point Battery. It also contains two significant remnants of coastal vegetation that covered the eastern suburbs of Sydney before European settlement. Also growing in this area is the last-known population of the Port Jackson mallee, which once grew extensively in the eastern suburbs.
Sydney's GPO has the city's finest stone faade and is the most impressive post office in the state. Its monumental scale, clock tower and Classical style make it a landmark in the CBD and a key element in the Martin Place streetscape. It was built to the design of influential colonial architect, James Barnet, and was extended progressively from the 1860s. As a wartime precaution, the tower was dismantled in 1942, and re-erected in 1964. The building reflects changes in postal technology and the growth of the NSW postal service during the 19th and 20th centuries.
This is the finest complex of colonial barracks buildings (pre-1850) in Australia and is still in military use. It is one of the few surviving sites connected with the British military presence in Australia during the colonial period. Its 13 hectares of sandstone buildings, walls and open spaces with trees, include:
- Building VB1 and Parade Ground
- Buildings VB41, 45 & 53
- Buildings VB13, 15, 16 & 17
- Buildings MQVB16 and VB56
- Buildings VB69, 75 & 76 including Garden
- Buildings VB83, 84, 85, 87 & 89
- Buildings VB90, 91, 91A & 92
- Victoria Barracks Perimeter Wall and Gates
- Building VB2 Guard House
- Buildings VB60 and VB62
- Squash Courts
Built in the 1840s, the former soldiers' barracks building dominates the Victoria Barracks complex and is the finest such building in Australia. It was designed by Lieutenant Colonel George Barney, the Commanding Royal Engineer, who played a notable role in the colony during that period. The parade ground, with its open space, textures and plantings, adds to the aesthetic value of the complex.
These buildings were once the soldiers' mess and cookhouses. They were built of sandstone in the mid-1840s. Some significant original fixtures remain such as iron grilles, a cellar door, a chimney breast and stack.
These sandstone buildings are set on an elevated site overlooking the sports areas and parade ground, and were the officers' quarters. Dating back to 1842, they form one of the longest continuously occupied barrack buildings in Australia.
These buildings were once the gaol and provost sergeant's quarters. The former gaol is one of only two colonial military prisons in eastern Australia.
The former hospital and morgue date back to the 1840s and are among the early buildings constructed at the barracks. Building 76 was built around 1845 as the hospital, and building 69 was constructed prior to 1847, as the morgue. Building 75 began as part of the enclosing wall and fence for the hospital and had loopholes as a defensive measure. Around the 1890s it was roofed over for use as a dispenser's store.
This is the Quartermaster's Store group of buildings and dates, in part, back to 1847. The main element is the Stonehenge residence, consisting of the double-storey sandstone barracks stores and the single-storey medical officers building.
The former barrack master's quarters, known as 'The Bungalow', is an important element of the Victoria Barracks complex. It was part of the first construction phase and was finished in 1847. Its designer was Lieutenant Colonel George Barney, the Commanding Royal Engineer, who played a notable role in the colony during the period.
Built 1845-50, this perimeter wall is an almost continuous sandstone wall approximately 0.3 metres thick, with an average height of 3 metres enclosing the barracks. Rifle post embrasures, which were openings in the wall to allow rifle fire, occur in at regular intervals in groups of four or five right round the perimeter. In some places the wall was excavated down 10 metres to a solid footing. This sandstone wall is the only such barracks wall in NSW and is a major streetscape feature.
Built 1846, the guard house is a small sandstone building and probably the only one of the period still in use in NSW. The old punishment cells at the rear have not been used since 1927. The stone-flagged exercise yard, now roofed, still contains its iron coal boxes, bearing the date 1837. This is a good example of a sandstone military guard house of the period.
Constructed in the 1880s, these buildings are the former School of Military Engineering and what is thought to be the former drill hall. The buildings have fulfilled different functions over the decades and have been altered to meet these needs.
This building is highly significant as a rare surviving example of a rackets court from the mid-19th century. It predates the wide establishment of the game and is thought to be one of the oldest surviving standard-size rackets courts in the world. Since its construction in 1847 it has been used continuously for ball games (although not for rackets).
This beautifully grafted gazebo is a surviving part of the garden of the Sydney harbourside mansion Clarens. Situated on a rock ledge at the boundary of the old Clarens garden, it overlooks Garden Island and the harbour. It is thought to have been built around 1868 and is associated with former NSW Premier, Sir James Martin.
Built in 1901, the post office is historically associated with the development of the Pyrmont area as a key industrial and warehouse suburb of inner Sydney. It was designed by NSW Government Architect W L Vernon and is prominently located at a major intersection fronting onto Pyrmont Square.
With vast areas of brickwork and located next to the water, this multi-storey building is a dramatic landmark on Sydney Harbour. Built in the early 1900s, it was specifically designed to store foodstuffs, cloth, clothing and equipment before being loaded onboard ships moored at the adjacent wharf. The building has a long association with Australia's naval history.
In February 1788, only a month after the arrival of the First Fleet, an island in Sydney Harbour was selected as the site for a garden to supply vegetables for the crew of HMS Sirius. Three sets of initials carved into the sandstone by marines and convicts and dated 1788, remain there today. The island soon became known as Garden Island, and was allocated to various ships over the next few years.
The island's development throughout the ensuing decades paralleled the development of New South Wales and of Australia more widely. From early in the 20th century it served as the Royal Australian Navy's major fleet base and ship refitting dockyard. As most of the original naval station buildings remain, the precinct represents a very rare unified group of fine 19th century naval buildings, which are possibly unsurpassed even in world terms. Its heritage structures include:
- Buildings 31 and 32
- Rigging Shed and Chapel
- Residences Group
- Naval Store
- Office Building
- Chain and Anchor Store (former)
The former barracks and kitchen buildings were built in 1887-89, during a major phase of development. They were designed by NSW Colonial Architect, James Barnet, and were based on Admiralty plans. The barracks were designed to accommodate 239 officers and men. In 1912 a hospital was established on the second floor. Since then the buildings have variously been used as offices, sign-writer's shop, registry and a museum.
Constructed in the 1880s, these buildings have a long association with the country's naval history and date back to the time of sail-powered ships. The Royal Australian Navy's oldest chapel is decorated with mosaics, memorial plaques, stained glass widows and ship's bow-shaped pulpit.
These buildings were built in 1894-95 to provide accommodation for the assistant storekeeper, a warrant officer and several storemen. They have remained as residences throughout their life and are currently occupied by Garden Island naval officers and their families.
The engineers' shop was built between 1889-91 and extended in 1892. It housed the foundry, pattern shop, a steam powerhouse and other engineering functions. Another building was constructed at the same time as a spar shed and dining room.
These stores were built in the 1890s and form one of Australia's few remaining naval dockside stores buildings from the late 19th century. In 1907, their function was transferred to the Royal Edward Victualling Yard at Pyrmont. The naval store has now been converted to offices and is known as the Main Dockyard Office Building.
This two-storey building with asymmetrical clock tower above its entrance, was built in 1894-95. The mechanically operated clock is rare, as it is powered by a pulley and weight system and has a differential apparatus that turns all four sets of hands simultaneously. The building has been the main administration centre for Garden Island, and still functions as an office today.
This industrial building was originally used as the chain and anchor store. It has since been known at the paint store, the battery shed, and by the early 1990s it was the sheet metal workshop.
Built in 1964, the Reserve Bank is an important example of a post-World War II multi-storey office building in the International style. It reflects the role of the Reserve Bank as Australia's central bank and the place where significant economic policy is carried out on behalf of the nation. It includes important moveable heritage items such as furniture, silverware, pottery, tapestry and artworks that were specifically designed or purchased for the building.
The weatherboard Cliff House was built in 1876 to the design of NSW Colonial Architect, James Barnet. It was part of the artillery barracks near South Head and was subsequently used to accommodate senior officers.
Located at the entry to Sydney Harbour, the Macquarie Lighthouse Group site reflects more than 170 years of settlement including 19th century buildings and various archaeological sites. It also includes the remnants of the first lighthouse to be erected in Australia as well as the current lighthouse, which was completed in 1883. The Macquarie Lighthouse Group site includes:
This lighthouse replaced Australia's first lighthouse, which was built on this site in 1816. In 1883, when the sandstones walls of the original lighthouse began to crumble away, it was replaced with the current tower. This is the site of the longest continuously operating navigational beacon in Australia. The 1883 lighthouse was designed by the influential NSW Colonial Architect, James Barnet.
The former assistant head-keeper's quarters are an integral part of the lightstation, which visually complements the light tower.
Once the head keeper's cottage, it is now the oldest intact freestanding lightkeeper's quarters in Australia. It contributes to the visual harmony of the precinct.
Convicts built this stone retaining wall in 1816. It is a remnant of the original lightstation.
Built in 1881, this building was the first biological research station in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere. It was built thanks to the efforts of marine biologist, explorer, anthropologist and humanitarian, Nicolai de Miklouho Maclay, who lived in and used the station between 1881 and 1886. At the end of the 1800s, it was used as military accommodation and continued to be used for more than a century.
The Shark Point fortifications were built in the 1870s, and today include three sandstone cannon emplacements, passageways, tunnels, powder magazine and embrasures, store and barrack rooms. The battery was important as part of Sydney's defences and was built at a time of fears of Russian aggression, the withdrawal of British garrison troops, threats to British dependencies and the colony's increasing self-reliance in defence matters.
The four military accommodation buildings in this group were constructed between 1876-1903, in response to fears of military attack on Sydney by foreign powers. The weatherboard buildings have been used by the military ever since.
Victorian entrepreneur T.S. Mort built this private dockyard in 1899-1901. It opened in 1902 and was the largest graving dock in Australia until 1945, when the Captain Cook Graving Dock opened on Garden Island. It was used by the navy in World War II and is a rare example of a private graving dock.
Built around 1935, the barracks reflect defence developments during the two World Wars. The permanent nature of the complex and the quality of its planning and architectural design confirm its importance as the headquarters of the Coastal Defence until 1940.
Covering about 60 hectares on Sydney Harbour's foreshore, Middle Head and Georges Heights is significant for a number of reasons. It is significant for being part of the cultural and social life of the colony of NSW, as a backdrop to the harbour and as the site of major defence works. The site contains a large number of places associated with the development of the defence of Sydney from the 19th century onwards including:
- Battery for Five Guns
- Officers Mess, HQ Training Command
- Chowder Bay Barracks Group
- Military Road Framework - Defence Land
- Golf Clubhouse (former)
- Battery B42
- Batteries A83 and C9A
- Headquarters 8th Brigade Precinct
- HMAS Penguin
- Navy Refuelling Depot and Caretakers House
- Headquarters Training Command Precinct
- Thirty Terminal Squadron Precinct
- Commonwealth Avenue Defence Housing
- Ten Terminal Regiment Headquarters and AusAid Training Centre
Built in 1871-73, this battery includes underground rock-cut tunnels, multiple gun pits, a brick-lined powder magazine as well as shell and shot stores.
Originally built as the artillery gunners barracks in 1873, this sandstone building has a distinctive loopholed wall and is linked by tunnels to an adjacent battery.
Established for the Submarine Mining Corps, this complex on the sloping harbour foreshore offers an insight into the nature of a submarine mining depot of the late 19th century. It includes individual purpose-built structures such as a laboratory, workshop, magazines, quarters, drill hall, railway, blast walls, cable storage pit, water tanks and gantries. It is the site of the earliest use of electricity for military purposes.
This road system was developed from 1870 after British troops left the colony. It forms a strategic link between gun batteries, barracks and associated defence works and reflects the strategic importance of roads in military logistics.
This was built in 1924 as the Mosman Golf Club Clubhouse on land leased from defence between the two World Wars. At the outbreak of World War II, the site reverted to military use. The former clubhouse retains much of its original detailing, reflecting the privileged position of its original golf club occupants.
Built in 1877 and extended 1903-07, this battery includes underground rock-cut tunnels and chambers and above-ground gun emplacements. It retains many original fittings, particularly compared with other gun batteries around Sydney Harbour.
Built around 1871, these batteries were modified in the 1890s to accommodate hydro-pneumatic guns. The layout and fittings of these batteries retain a high degree of integrity relative to other gun batteries of the period.
Built in 1913, the former Mosman Drill Hall was one of five new drill halls in Sydney and one of the earliest built in the state by the Commonwealth Government. Drill halls were used to train militia training and were built to four standard designs from 1913- this is an excellent example of a Type 2 drill hall.
Covering about 16 hectares at Georges Heights, this site is a purpose-built naval training and hospitalisation complex that was constructed during World War II. It has been the focus of naval training in Sydney Harbour since 1940. Its many structures include a gatehouse, conference hall, administration support centre, naval stores, naval hospital, naval police school, accommodation block, senior sailors' accommodation and mess, ward room and swimming pool (formerly part of the Mosman Sewage Treatment Works). It also includes waterfront areas such as the jetty complex and diving school.
Built in the 1930s, the depot's three fuel tanks were part of the first major use of military camouflage in Australia when they were given false roofs during World War II.
This precinct covers about 15 hectares and was developed from the 1870s onwards. It was a major Australian military hospital during World War I, and includes a range of buildings and other structures. The precinct was one of the most strategically important harbour defensive positions ever constructed in Sydney.
This 3-hectare precinct was developed from the 1870s and reflects defence practices, functions and designs that are no long being used, such as the store shed and the former hospital buildings.
This 1-hectare area includes seven Defence Housing properties, two of which are significant - a 1950s navy cottage and the 1930s commanding officer's residence. The CO's residence reflects the type of housing provided to army officers between the world wars and the former navy cottage is an example of a Riley-Newsum prefabricated house that was imported by the Commonwealth to overcome labour and material shortages after World War II.
Covering about 4 hectares, this area is associated with the Army Intelligence Centre that played a notable role during the Cold War years and the Vietnam War. The second building was used during World War II to house Italian prisoners of war and internees prior to becoming the AusAid Centre for Pacific Development and Training.
Developed from the 1850s onward, this harbourside house and grounds reflect the lifestyle of affluent Sydneysiders of the period. Since 1957 they have been used by Australian prime ministers.
Built in the 1850s, Kirribilli House was one of the earliest substantial houses built on this part of Sydney Harbour. Since 1957, it has provided a Sydney home for Australian Prime Ministers from Sir Robert Menzies to John Howard.
This harbourside landmark was built in the 1840s and extended in the 1890s, Admiralty House was the residence of the Royal Navy Commander-in-Chief of the Australia Station 1885-1913, and has been the Sydney residence of the Governor-General since that date.
This garden was used by the Royal Navy Commander-in Chief of the Australia Station from 1885 to 1913, and since then has been used by the Governor-General. The fortifications were built between 1857 and 1859 and forms the only existing battery of this type and period in the nation.
This place is associated with the 1840s woolscour of early colonial entrepreneur Ben Boyd, and later with the prominent boat-building firm, Halvorsens. It was also used for military and customs activities. The site is particularly significant for its long and continuing association with waterfront commercial and industrial operations and is one of the few remaining maritime industrial sites on the north shore of the harbour.
This 400-hectare area contains one of the largest remnants of the natural vegetation of the Cumberland Plain including several nationally-endangered/vulnerable plant species.
With the oldest buildings dating from 1819, these buildings are the earliest surviving military barracks in mainland Australia. Among the buildings on the site are two surviving original structures - Bob's Hall and the barracks. Bob's Hall is a single-storey building named after Lord Roberts, the Lancers' commanding officer during the South African war. They are directly associated with the early military history of New South Wales and with the early government administration at Parramatta.
Dating from 1819, these barracks are the oldest on mainland Australia. Both Bob's Hall and the barracks were used by British troops until the 1850s, then by police forces. From 1897, they have been the home of the Royal New South Wales Lancers.
Dating from the 1870s, the property is associated with entrepreneur Thomas Smith and his politician son, Sydney Smith, who were responsible for a number of firsts in Australia including the country's first hot air balloon flight.
This 1370-hectare area is almost entirely vegetated with remnants and regenerating areas of Cumberland Plain Woodland and Sydney Coastal River Flat Forest. Cumberland Plain Woodland is an endangered ecological community and Coastal River Flat Forest is regarded as an endangered ecological community that is under represented in reserves.
This is of exceptional interest as a permanent survey marker defining one of two 19th century trigonometrical baselines in the state. It is associated with the surveying of NSW and is at the northern end of a baseline that established the datum for survey data extending some 500 kilometres to the north-west as part of the geodetic triangulation system of New South Wales. In the early days of settlement, the compilation of accurate maps or the certainty of location of any particular estate was impossible.
In 1916, this 50-hectare place was the first government-owned civil aerodrome in Australia. It was bought by the Commonwealth in 1923 and developed as the nation's second military airbase after Point Cook. It has a long association with the development of the RAAF and reflects the main characteristics of early air bases.
Ingleburn was the first purpose-built infantry training camp of World War II and was a major Australian army camp through to the 1970s. It was associated with both the Korean and Vietnam wars and was a major training centre for the National Service Scheme (1951-1972). Army Reserves trained at the camp from 1973 through to the 1990s. The area also includes remnants of Cumberland Plain Woodlands and Sydney Coastal River Flat Forest.
These three cottages are adjacent to the Ingleburn Army Camp. They were prefabricated in Europe immediately after World War II when materials and labour in Australia were short. They are rare survivors of the houses, which were pre-made by Riley-Newsum in Britain and Amals Sagverks Aktiebolag in Sweden.
This was the largest internment camp in Australia in World War I and reflects attitudes toward German and other European migrants at the time. Surviving buildings are rare examples of their type, and were later used during army training in World War II.
This 18,000-hectare site includes 530 recorded Aboriginal sites (rock art shelters, engravings, camp sites, grinding grooves and scarred trees) that have remained relatively undisturbed. The area is highly valued by members of the Tharawal Local Aboriginal Land Council and the Dharawal people for its symbolic, cultural, educational and social associations. This area has mainly Indigenous and natural values, but includes historic values reflecting early settlement and transport sites, and the Holsworthy camp (as above) with its associations with army training and World War I internment.
This area has been a military storage centre since 1915 and contains 20 World War II post and beam warehouses. It has played a role in Australia's military history during World War I, World War II and beyond.
The centre, developed from 1949, is one of the largest and longest-running migrant hostels in Australia following World War II, and is now the only hostel in NSW. Its buildings include distinctive Nissen huts and other structures from the earlier munitions works on the site. All the former members of the Australian band The Easybeats were once Villawood residents, as were Angus and Malcolm Young of AC/DC.
Located on a rise behind dramatic cliffs, this concrete tower lighthouse was built in 1950-51, reflecting the ongoing development of navigational aids along the Australian coast.
Dating from 1865, this is the oldest naval explosives manufacturing and storage complex in Australia, and is a very rare and complete complex, even in world terms. Originally built to hold government gunpowder, it was later converted by the Royal Australian Navy to store naval munitions. The buildings reflect the special designs needed for safe explosives handling.
Dating from 1921, this island was a naval cadet training facility and is the state's earliest surviving Navy League training depot. It was planned to reflect the layout of ships at sea. It holds the Len Forsythe Museum Collection which is Australia's largest naval artefact collection.
This 1891 lighthouse is the highest light on the state's coast. It was designed by NSW Colonial Architect, James Barnet, and stands on top of a granite headland 140 metres above sea level.