Atmosphere Theme Report
Australia State of the Environment Report 2001 (Theme Report)
Lead Author: Dr Peter Manins, Environmental Consulting and Research Unit, CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Authors
Published by CSIRO on behalf of the Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2001
ISBN 0 643 06746 9
Climate Variability and Change (continued)
Australia's climate-related activities [A Indicator 1.16]
The Commonwealth government, research and development corporations and state agencies provide funds for climate-related activities such as monitoring and research. The Commonwealth government expenditure on such climate-related activities was about A$191 million during the 1998-99 financial year (Table 12). 'Direct' expenditure on climate refers to where climate research is the primary objective of the expenditure, such as the BoM and CSIRO climate research programs. 'Indirect' expenditure is related to BoM activities, such as costs of the part of Bureau's meteorological observing systems and data processing, and operational weather forecasts.
|Commonwealth agency||Direct ($m)||Direct + indirect ($m)|
|Department of Environment and Heritage||BoMA,B||21.5||77.9|
|Australian Antarctic DivisionC||2.5||29.5|
|Other (e.g. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority)||0.5||2.0|
|Natural Heritage Trust||1.5||30.0|
|CSIRO||Climate and atmosphere sectorB||15.0||15.0|
|Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS) B||2.5||3.3|
|Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (AFFA)||Bureau of Resource Sciences (BRS)||0.5||1.5|
|Climate Variability in Agriculture Program (CVAP)||0.4||0.4|
|Department of Industry, Science and Resources (DISR)||Australian Geological Survey Organisation (AGSO) B||0.7||1.3|
|Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO)B||3.5||9.5|
A To a large extent, the systems that provide climate-related observations are also required to support the Bureau's forecast and warning services. However, some facets of the monitoring and prediction program have a particular focus on the need for a long-term, high quality climate record, such as the designated set of Reference Climate Stations. This also involves other high priority climate networks, such as GCOS surface network and GCOS upper air network and the Global Atmospheric Watch station (Cape Grim BAPS). An element of the total cost of the Bureau's observing systems has therefore been included as a measure of the indicative direct cost of climate monitoring and the remainder is included in the indirect total.
B A component of this direct expenditure has been committed to in-kind and direct contributions to climate-related Cooperative Research Centres (CRCs).
C Expenditure by the AGO includes grant funding to industry, as well local, state and Commonwealth government bodies. Although this funding directly to Commonwealth bodies ($3.0m) is included in the amounts cited for these entities, total indicative funding has been adjusted so that funds are not counted twice.
D A significant component of indirect DISR expenditure relates to development of response strategies.
Source: BoM (1999).
A portion of these 'indirect' funds are used by the BoM to maintain the national climate observing network, an electronic and document archive of the climatological database, and also to provide a range of climate services on a national basis and maintain an ongoing climate research program. A substantial amount is used by CSIRO through its Climate and Atmosphere Sector in research programs on atmospheric, oceanographic, hydrological and biospherical aspects of the climate system. The AGO's National Greenhouse Research Program funds provide strategic supplementary greenhouse research funding to the CSIRO, BoM Research Centre, the National Tidal Facility and other organisations.
The AFFA, with the BRS and the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE) conduct research on climate and its application to agriculture and strategies related to climate variability. DISR funds have been used for research on climate change response through the Department's Energy and Environment Division and through the Australian Surveying and Land Information Group, Australian Government Analytical Laboratories, Ionospheric Prediction Service and the ANSTO. The Australian Antarctic Division, GBRMPA and AGSO conduct research on sea ice and palaeoclimatological reconstruction of ice cores that contribute to the work of the Antarctic CRC. The Australian Antarctic Division also conducts research on climate variability in Antarctica and Southern Ocean.
ANSTO, with its expertise in identifying and tracking radionuclides, contributes to climate research. Jointly with CSIRO, the BoM and other organisations, ANSTO's research has enabled measurements of gaseous exchanges and refined dates of palaeoclimatic events. The Australian Institute for Marine Science (AIMS) conducts climate-related research to understand the influence of weather on variability in shallow-water tropical systems. Other agencies, such as the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, provide funding for climate research in universities. The Natural Heritage Trust, together with Environment Australia and AFFA, provide funds for several programs, such as Landcare and Bushcare. As stated by the BoM (1999), it is difficult to present a total annual expenditure for climate activities since much of the work is funded indirectly.
Part of the Commonwealth funding is provided to research and development corporations, which have been set up by the Commonwealth government and are funded jointly by industry. These corporations contribute to both climate variability (though the CVAP) and climate change relevant to primary industries. The CVAP has received funding of over $8 million from the Commonwealth since 1992. Rural research and development corporations have contributed $4 million for climate research. Details of funding from state agencies are not easily accessible. However, research activities and a list of state funding departments are given in BoM (1999).