Atmosphere Theme Report
Australia State of the Environment Report 2001 (Theme Report)
Lead Author: Dr Peter Manins, Environmental Consulting and Research Unit, CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Authors
Published by CSIRO on behalf of the Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2001
ISBN 0 643 06746 9
Stratospheric Ozone (continued)
Australian consumption of ozone-depleting substances [A Indicator 2.5]
Estimates of Australia's emissions of ozone-depleting substances are not available, but estimates of consumption are available from Environment Australia for 1986, 1989 and during the 1990s. The production of CFCs, HCFCs and carbon tetrachloride in Australia has now ceased and local consumption of ozone-depleting substances is limited to some imports and recycling for essential uses defined by Australia's ozone protection strategy, which is designed to meet Australia's international obligations under the Montreal Protocol.
Ozone-depletion potential (ODP)-weighted consumption has declined over the period of data collection (1986-1999) (Figure 78). Australian consumption, which was nearly 20 kt/year in 1986, declined rapidly after 1989 in response to restrictions imposed on the use of ozone-depleting substances. By 1996, consumption fell to less than 1 kt and has remained below this level to date. Current consumption is about 800 t which is required to service the few remaining essential uses of ozone-depleting substances allowed under Australia's ozone protection strategy.
Figure 78: Australian consumption of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) in ODP-weighted kilotonnes (kt), based on production and import/export data.
Source: Environment Australia
Australian consumption of ozone-depleting substances remained well within its Montreal Protocol limit throughout the 1990s. Consumption in 1999 (about 800 t) is close to the Protocol limit for 1999-2000 (900 t).
A qualitative indicator of how emissions of ozone-depleting substances in Australia have declined can be seen in the Cape Grim record of their abundance in the atmosphere (e.g. Figure 79). The global behaviour of methyl chloroform, a substance covered by the Montreal Protocol, is reflected in its declining baseline level in recent years. The positive excursions are due to air masses reaching Cape Grim that had passed over Melbourne. The obvious downward trends in emissions from Melbourne can be seen in the data: after 1996, Melbourne emissions of methyl chloroform appear to have ceased.
Figure 79: Methyl chloroform observations (ppt) at Cape Grim, Tas.
The background data are shown in red and the Melbourne pollution episodes are in black.
Source: Prinn et al. (2000); CSIRO; Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Monitoring Station
Current Australian consumption of ozone-depleting substances is about 800 t which is required to service the few remaining essential uses allowed under Australia's ozone protection strategy. In order to reduce significantly future consumption of ozone-depleting substances in Australia, the essential uses allowed under the Protocol will have to be reassessed.