Biodiversity Theme Report

Australia State of the Environment Report 2001 (Theme Report)
Prepared by: Dr Jann Williams, RMIT University, Authors
Published by CSIRO on behalf of the Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2001
ISBN 0 643 06749 3

Figures and Photographs

  • Figures
  • Photographs
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    Figures

    • Figure 1 - Number of endemic vascular plant species in 17 megadiverse countries illustrating that Australia has the fifth highest number of species in this group.
    • Figure 2 - Number of endemic non-fish vertebrate species in 17 mega-diverse countries illustrating that Australia has the highest level of endemism for this group of species.
    • Figure 3 - Major vegetation types in Australia in 1988.
    • Figure 4 - Australian terrestrial and marine regions derived from IBRA (version 5) and IMCRA, respectively.
    • Figure 5 - Human population density in Australia in 1997 showing the concentration of Australians in coastal, urban areas.
    • Figure 6 - Projected change in human population density by IBRA region, between 1997 and 2006. The main increases are expected in the coastal regions of southern and eastern Australia.
    • Figure 7 - Extent of land disturbance in Australia.
    • Figure 8 - The River Disturbance Index.
    • Figure 9 - Salinity and water quality in Australia showing the major areas of concern.
    • Figure 10 - Area of native vegetation cleared within the ILZ of Queensland between 1997 and 1999 by subregion.
    • Figure 11 - Countries with highest estimated rate of native vegetation clearance in 1999.
    • Figure 12 - Percentage of native vegetation in land tenures associated with conservative land use practices (indicative map only).
    • Figure 13 - Current extent of native vegetation by bioregion (IBRA).
    • Figure 14 - Periurban clearing between 1988 and 1997 near Jandakot airfield, WA.
    • Figure 15 - Mapping of the degree of native vegetation fragmentation. Indicative map only.
    • Figure 16 - Salinity risk to remnant vegetation in south-west Western Australia.
    • Figure 17 - Distribution of all water points named on the 1:250 000 and 1:100 000 topographic maps covering mainland Australia.
    • Figure 18 - Proportion of IBRA regions >9 km from a watering point.
    • Figure 19 - Conservation status of Interim Biogeographic Representation for Australia (IBRA) in 2000 showing the percentage area reserved in each region.
    • Figure 20 - Day trip access and range of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage area.
    • Figure 21 - Types of marine plants authorised for disturbance in Queensland marine bioregions in 1996.
    • Figure 22 - Mangrove plant richness around the Australian coastline showing many more species in the wet tropics compared with temperate Australia.
    • Figure 23 - Changes in coral cover at Heron Island, Qld.
    • Figure 24 - A bycatch reduction device.
    • Figure 25 - Number and length of 3-D seismic surveys per year in the Twofold Shelf and Otway IMCRA regions.
    • Figure 26 - Change in fishing effort (hooks) in the eastern sector of the Australian Pelagic Longline Fishery and the area of the fishery (square nautical miles) between 1989 and 1998.
    • Figure 27 - Total kilometres trawled in the South East Trawl Fishery between 1989 and 1998.
    • Figure 28 - Fire-affected areas recorded for Australia between April 1998 to March 2000 derived from NOAA satellite imagery.
    • Figure 29 - Fire hotspots recorded for Australia between April 1998 and March 2000 derived from NOAA satellite imagery.
    • Figure 30 - Changes in the distribution of the Swift Parrot (Lathamus discolor), under various scenarios of climate change
    • Figure 31 - Increase in the human population in the Great Barrier Reef catchment area, 1900 to 1990.
    • Figure 32 - Increase in the use of nitrogen fertiliser in the Great Barrier Reef catchment area, 1910 to 1990.
    • Figure 33 - Decrease in the area of native vegetation in the lower Herbert Catchment in northern Queensland from pre-European times to 1996.
    • Figure 34 - Increase in the total area of sugar cane (Saccharumspp.) harvested in Queensland, 1870 to 1990.
    • Figure 35 - National Pollutant Inventory (NPI) reporting facilities.
    • Figure 36 - Number of terrestrial non-indigenous vertebrate and invertebrate pest species per IBRA region based on a list of around 30 species considered to have a major impact in Australia (Table 39).
    • Figure 37 - Number of freshwater pest species per drainage basin including the endemic Yabbie (Cherax destructor).
    • Figure 38 - Number of marine pest species per IMCRA region including the endemic Crown-of-thorns Starfish (Acanthaster planci).
    • Figure 39 - Distribution and spread of Cane Toads (Bufo marinus) from 1935 to 2001.
    • Figure 40 - Current and potential distribution of Alligator Weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides), a weed of national significance.
    • Figure 41 - Current and potential distribution of Parkinsonia (Parkinsonia aculeata), a weed of national significance.
    • Figure 42 - Total of small-scale proposals (for laboratory, glasshouse or clinical applications of recombinant DNA under contained conditions) assessed by the Genetic Manipulation Advisory Committee (GMAC) between 1981 and 30 June 1999.
    • Figure 43 - Changes in the number of presumed extinct vascular plant species in Australia between 1981 and 2000.
    • Figure 44 - Number of nationally rare and threatened species in 2000 per IBRA region.
    • Figure 45 - Number of nationally rare and threatened species in 2000 per IMCRA region.
    • Figure 46 - Distribution of nesting turtles, for all six species occurring within Australian waters.
    • Figure 47 - Decline in the number of nesting female Loggerhead Turtles (Caretta caretta) at Wreck Island.
    • Figure 48 - Number of nesting female Green Turtles (Chelonia mydes) tagged on Heron Island between 1974 and 1996 for the entire breeding season.
    • Figure 49 - Number of Humpback Whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) off Australia's east coast between 1948 and 1996.
    • Figure 50 - A map of the distribution of 87 595 bird surveys observed at 12 200 unique locations during the Field Atlas (1977-81).
    • Figure 51 - Distribution of the Australian Bustard (Ardeotis australis), during the Field Atlas (1977-1981) and the New Atlas (1998-2000) showing a decrease in range.
    • Figure 52 - Distribution, migration and recognised aggregation areas of the Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae).
    • Figure 53 - Distribution, migration and recognised aggregation areas of the Southern Right Whale (Eubalaena australis).
    • Figure 54 - The percentage of taxonomists working on each taxon out of the total number of taxonomists and the percentage of undescribed taxa remaining in each taxon, in June 2000.
    • Figure 55 - The number of long-term research and monitoring sites by tenure, ecosystem type and decade commenced.
    • Figure 56 - Distribution of long-term ecological research and monitoring sites across Australia.
    • Figure 57 - The number of long-term research and monitoring sites in Australia devoted to sampling various taxa.
    • Figure 58 - The percentage of participants in Natural Heritage Trust programs, 1996 to 2000.

    Photographs