The area of Jervis Bay was entered on the Register of the National Estate in 1993 in recognition of its outstanding landscape features, its diversity of flora, fauna and archaeological sites and its value to past and present communities for recreational activities. While listing on the Register does not dictate specific management requirements in relation to the park, section 30 of the Australian Heritage Commission Act requires that Commonwealth Ministers and authorities should not take action that will have an adverse effect on listed properties unless there is no feasible and prudent alternative.
The park contains many species that are at the limits of their bio-geographical range. The habitats protect a high concentration of rare and threatened plants and animal species. The park supports a population of endangered Bristle Birds and also the threatened green and golden bell frog. The park protects a significantly large area of species rich heath, a diversity of wetlands and extensive saltmarshes. the park also protects the largest Posidonia seagrass meadows in New South Wales. The area is also one of the State's outstanding scenic locations.
The Botanic Gardens, a former annex of the Australian National Botanic Gardens, contains a significant collection of plants collected over the last fifty years, and is unique in its presentation of regional Koori plant utilisation.