Feather-Leaved Banksia (Banksia brownii) recovery plan
Sandra Gilfillan and Sarah Barrett
Government of Western Australia, Department of Environment and Conservation
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts 2008
About the plan
Common Names: Feather-leaved banksia, Brown's banksia
Flowering Period: March to August
DEC Regions: South Coast
DEC District: Albany Work Centre
Shires: Plantagenet, Albany, Gnowangerup, Cranbrook
Recovery Team: Albany District Threatened Flora Recovery Team
Illustrations and/or further information:
Brown, A., Thomson-Dans, C. and Marchant, N. (Eds). (1998) Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia; Western Australian Herbarium (1998) FloraBase - Information on the Western Australian Flora. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia. http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/.
Banksia brownii was declared as Rare Flora under the Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 in November 1980 and is currently ranked as Critically Endangered (CR) in Western Australia under World Conservation Union (IUCN, 2001) Red List criterion A3ce due to a projected decline in population size of ? 80% within the next three generations as a result of dieback (Phytophthora cinnamomi). Banksia brownii is listed as Endangered under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act).
Twenty populations, together containing approximately 19,500 mature plants, are currently known to be extant and ten populations are recorded as presumed extinct due to Phytophthora cinnamomi infestation.
Banksia brownii grows in a range of habitats from mountain tops and slopes, in thicket and mallee-heath on rocky sand clay loam soils in the Stirling Range; and in mallee heath and low woodland, on sandy clay soils on lateritic ridges or granite in southern populations. The associated shrubland is rich in proteaceous and myrtaceous species.
Habitat critical to the survival of the species, and important populations:
The habitat critical for Banksia brownii comprises the area of occupancy of important populations; areas of similar habitat surrounding important populations (these areas provide potential habitat for natural range extension and for allowing pollinators or biota essential to the continued existence of the species to move between populations; and additional occurrences of similar habitat that may contain important populations of the species or be suitable for future translocations or other recovery actions intended to created important populations). All population are considered important for the long-term recovery and survival of the species.
Benefits to other species/ecological communities:
Banksia brownii occurs within the Montane 01 Threatened Ecological Community (TEC) (Montane Thicket and Heath of the South West Botanical Province, above approximately 900m above sea level) which is listed as Endangered under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (listed as 'Eastern Stirling Range Montane Heath and Thicket') and the Montane Mallee Thicket of the Stirling Range TEC (Mallee-heath and mallee-thicket community on mid to upper slopes of Stirling Range mountains and hills) which was assessed by the Western Australian Threatened Ecological Communities Scientific Committee on the 15 February 2002 as Endangered. Recovery actions put in place for B. brownii will benefit both these threatened communities.
Chordifex abortivus, a species listed as Endangered under the EPBC Act, has a limited distribution and occurs in the same location as a B. brownii population in Waychinicup NP (Population 22). This population is also within the known range of four threatened bird species (Western Ground Parrot (Pezoporus wallicus flaviventris), Western Bristlebird (Dasyornis longirostris), Western Whipbird (Psophodes nigrogularis subsp. nigrogularis) and Noisy Scrub-bird (Atrichornus clamosus)). The area could also contain dibblers (Parantechinus apicalis), as records of this species occur within five kilometres and are from vegetation dominated by Banksia species with continuous remnant vegetation in between.
Recovery actions put in place for Banksia brownii will benefit the above threatened communities and species, and reciprocally, any recovery actions in place for these communities and species will benefit B. brownii.
This plan is fully consistent with the aims and recommendations of the Convention on Biological Diversity, ratified by Australia in June 1993, and will assist in implementing AustraliaÂfs responsibilities under that Convention. Banksia brownii is not specifically listed under any international treaty and therefore this plan does not affect AustraliaÂfs obligations under any other international agreements.
Role and interests of Indigenous people:
Involvement of the Indigenous community is being sought through the advice of the Department of Indigenous Affairs to determine whether there are any issues or interests identified in the plan. A search of the Department of Indigenous Affairs Aboriginal Heritage Sites Register has revealed that the registered site Kojaneerup (S01409) occurs in close proximity to Banksia brownii population 16. Where no role is identified for the Indigenous community associated with this species in the development of the recovery plan, opportunities may exist through cultural interpretation and awareness of the species. Indigenous involvement in the implementation of recovery actions will be encouraged.
All known populations are on Crown land.
Social and economic impacts:
The implementation of this Interim Recovery Plan has minimal social and economic impact as all populations are on DEC-managed land or City of Albany Reserve. However, recovery actions will involve liaison and cooperation with all stakeholders.
Evaluation of the Plans Performance:
The Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC), in conjunction with the Albany District Threatened Flora Recovery Team (ADTFRT) will evaluate the performance of this IRP. In addition to annual reporting on progress and evaluation against the criteria for success and failure, the Plan will be reviewed following five years of implementation.
Completed Recovery Actions:
The following recovery actions have been implemented:
- All land managers have been notified of the location and threatened status of the species.
- Seed collections for long-term conservation have been made by staff of the DEC Threatened Flora Seed Centre (TFSC).
- Staff from the DEC Albany Work Centre and volunteers have regularly monitored populations.
- Phosphite has been applied via aerial spaying annually or biannually to many populations.
- Monitoring of survival of Banksia brownii and the rate of spread of Phytophthora cinnamomi in sites sprayed with phosphite has been carried out.
- A Draft Fire Management Plan has been produced for the Stirling Range NP.
- Abatement of identified threats to improve the conservation status of Banksia brownii in the wild.
- Ex situ seed storage from as diverse a range of populations as possible for future translocations and to maintain genetic diversity.
Criteria for success:
- The number of populations and individuals within populations remains stable over the five years of the plan.
- An increase in the number and diversity of seed held in long-term storage at the TFSC over the five years of the plan.
Criteria for failure:
- The number of populations and individuals within populations decreases over the five years of the plan.
- No change in the number and diversity of seed stored at the TFSC over the five years of the plan.
- Coordinate recovery actions
- Continue, and increase where appropriate phosphite application to extant populations
- Continue hygiene practices
- Monitor populations
- Further develop and implement a fire management strategy
- Continue seed collections for long-term conservation
- Extract seed from cones already collected and stored in the DEC Threatened Flora Seed Centre
- Survey for suitable translocation sites for northern and southern forms and write a Translocation Proposal
- Conduct further surveys
- Liaise with stakeholders
- Promote awareness
- Obtain biological and ecological information
- Map habitat critical to the survival of the species
- Review the need for a full Recovery Plan and prepare if necessary