National recovery plan for the Toolinna Adenanthos (Adenanthos eyrei)
Department of Environment and Conservation, Esperance District
- National recovery plan for the Toolinna Adenanthos (Adenanthos eyrei) (PDF - 121 KB) | (RTF - 1.2 MB)
- Scientific Name: Adenanthos eyrei
- Common Name: Toolinna Adenanthos
- Family: PROTEACEAE
- Flowering Period: All year
- DEC Region: South Coast
- DEC District: Esperance
- Shire: Esperance
- Recovery Team: Esperance District Threatened Flora Recovery Team (EDTFRT)
Illustrations and/or further information:
Brown, A., Thomson-Dans, C. and Marchant, N. (Eds). (1998) Western Australia’s Threatened Flora. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia; Nelson, E. C. (1978). A taxonomic revision of the genus Adenanthos (Proteaceae). Brunonia, 1: 303-406;
Adenanthos eyrei was declared as Rare Flora under the Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 in November 1980 and currently meets World Conservation Union (IUCN 2001) Red List Criteria Endangered (EN) under criterion D as the population is estimated to number fewer than 250 mature individuals. The species is listed as EN under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act)
Adenanthos eyrei is an erect, open shrub to 1 m tall. The branchlets are hairy, while older branches have very warty bark. The leaves are also hairy, and on stalks. They vary in shape, but are mostly divided into flat segments up to 15 mm long. The deep crimson, softly hairy flowers are held on stalks in leaf axils or at the end of branches. The narrow floral tubes, which are 25 mm in length, have long, protruding styles up to 35 mm long.
There is currently question over whether A. eyrei is a distinct species due to its similarity to A. forrestii. Key differences between the two species appears to be the absence of a lignotuber in A. eyrei as opposed to its presence in A. forrestii, and the colour of the flowers, with A. eyrei having dark crimson flowers and A. forrestii having pale red and cream flowers. However, recent observation has shown the flower colour of both taxa to be variable and the lack of a lignotuber and the lack of a woody underground rootstock are not normally used to distinguish taxa at a species level without additional morphological features (Brown et. al. 1998). A taxonomic review of A. eyrei is currently being carried out and a DNA analysis may follow.
Adenanthos eyrei occurs in an undisturbed area on the edge of the Great Australian Bight, where there is just one known population. Plants resemble the common, widespread Forrest’s woollybush (A. forrestii) and they are difficult to distinguish from one another due to variable leaf morphology. Habitat is deep siliceous sand dunes above limestone cliffs, in low open scrub with Adenanthos forrestii and Banksia media.
Habitat critical to the survival of the species, and important populations:
The habitat critical to the survival of Adenanthos eyrei comprises the area of occupancy of the known population, similar habitat surrounding the known population and additional nearby occurrences of similar habitat that do not currently contain the species but may have done so in the past and may be suitable for translocations. Given that the species is listed as Endangered it is considered that all known habitat for wild and possible future translocated populations is habitat critical to its survival, and all populations, including translocated populations, are important populations.
Benefits to other species/ecological communities:
Adenanthos eyrei occurs with Banksia media andseveral priority species including Goodenia varia, Eucalyptus surgens, Opercularia loganioides and Galium migrans. Recovery actions implemented to improve the quality or security of the habitat of Adenanthos eyrei will also improve the status of the vegetation type in which these priority species occur.
This plan is fully consistent with the aims and recommendations of the Convention on Biological Diversity, ratified by Australia in 1993, and will assist in implementing Australia’s responsibilities under that convention. This species is not specifically listed under any international treaty and therefore does not affect Australia’s obligations under any other international agreements.
Role and interests of Indigenous people:
The Department of Indigenous Affairs Aboriginal Heritage Sites Register lists no sites at or near the Adenanthos eyrei population. However, the involvement of the Indigenous community is currently being sought to determine whether there are any issues or interests identified in the Plan. If no role is identified for Indigenous communities in the recovery of this species, opportunities may exist through cultural interpretation and awareness of the species.
The advice of the South West Aboriginal Land and Sea Council (SWALSC) and Department of Indigenous Affairs is being sought to assist in the identification of potential indigenous management responsibilities for land occupied by threatened species, or groups with a cultural connection to land that is important for the species' conservation.
Continued liaison between DEC and the Indigenous community will identify areas in which collaboration will assist implementation of recovery actions.
All known populations are on Crown land managed by DEC.
Social and economic impact:
The implementation of this recovery plan has minimal social and economic impact as all populations are on Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) managed land.
Guide for decision-makers:
Proposed actions in the immediate vicinity of the populations or within the defined habitat critical to the survival of Adenanthos eyrie require assessment for the potential for a significant level of impact.
Evaluation of the Plans Performance:
DEC in conjunction with the EDTFRT will evaluate the performance of this recovery plan.
Existing Recovery Actions:
The following recovery actions have been or are currently being implemented.
- Land managers have been notified of the location and threatened status of the species.
- Staff from CALM (now DEC) have been monitoring the population.
- A taxonomic review is currently being carried out to assess the distinctiveness of A. eyrei.
Recovery plan objective:
The objective of this recovery plan is to abate identified threats and maintain a viable in situ population of Adenanthos eyrei to ensure the long-term preservation of this species in the wild.
Criteria for success:
The number of populations have increased and/or individuals within the known population have increased by ten percent or more over the 5 year term of this plan.
Criteria for failure:
The known population becomes extinct or individuals within the known population have decreased by ten percent or more over the 5 year term of this plan.
- Coordinate recovery actions
- Complete a taxonomic review
- Conduct DNA analysis
- Re-assess access track
- Monitor population
- Conduct further surveys
- Map habitat critical to the survival of Adenanthos eyrei
- Seed collection and storage
- Collect cuttings for cultivation
- Obtain biological and ecological information
- Promote awareness
- Review the recovery plan and assess the need for further recovery reactions