Australia State of the Environment Report 2001 (Theme Report)
Prepared by: Dr Jann Williams, RMIT University, Authors
Published by CSIRO on behalf of the Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2001
ISBN 0 643 06749 3
This section reports on the following environmental indicators, which are defined in Saunders et al. (1998).
|BD 13.3 | a | b | c | d |||Number of interest groups involved in protected area planning|
|BD 13.4||Resources committed to protected areas|
|BD 18.3||Number of lending institutions considering biodiversity|
|BD 23.1||Number of local governments with management plans for biodiversity|
|BD 23.2||Number of companies with management plans for biodiversity|
|BD 24.7 | a | b |||Percentage of budgets spent on conservation|
|BD 24.8 | a | b |||Amount of Indigenous ethnobiological knowledge|
|BD 25.1||Local government management of biodiversity|
|BD 25.2 | a | b | c | d |||Involvement of community groups in conservation|
|BD 26||Australia's international role in conservation|
The roles and responsibilities of those involved in biodiversity management have changed significantly in Australia in recent years, and continue to evolve. In the past, different levels of government have traditionally been involved in the conservation and management of biodiversity. Local government and the private sector are now becoming increasingly involved.
From the ABS (ABS 1999b), it can be seen that governments were the largest users of services and products designed to protect Australia's biodiversity and landscape in 1995-96 and 1996-97, the latest years for which these data are available (Table 62). This provides a broad indication of the level of expenditure of Commonwealth and state governments although it was not possible to present this as a percentage of the overall level of government expenditure. However, a broad comparison can be undertaken with spending at the Commonwealth level on other programs. Budget papers for 1999-2000 indicate that $23.8 billion was spent on Health, $18 billion on Defence, $49.4 billion on Family and Community Services and $11.3 billion on Education, Training and Youth Affairs. More detailed information about spending at the Commonwealth, state and territory and local government level follows.
|Components||1995-96 ($000)||1996-97 ($000)|
1 072 443
1 056 942
1 225 642
|Gross capital formation
1 205 994
1 545 899
1 379 194
1 513 403
A Includes subsidies.
Source: ABS (1999b).
Natural Heritage Trust expenditure [BD Indicator 24.7]
The NHT is a public finance mechanism through which a proportion of the proceeds from the privatisation of the Commonwealth's telecommunications utility are being expended on environmental and resource management programs. Many programs within the Trust are continuation of past programs. Of the programs financed in whole or part through the Trust, some have clear relevance to biodiversity, and thus those expenditures can be identified as biodiversity expenditure (e.g. NRSP, ESP). For the bulk of programs, biodiversity may benefit from expenditure, but the focus is on other issues (e.g. Waterwatch, Landcare). Tables 63 and 64 provide details of NHT funding for several programs as an overall figure (Table 63) and at the state and territory level (Table 64). The total numbers vary because of the different periods covered.
|1996-97 $m (actual)||1997-98 $m (actual)||1998-99 $m (actual)||1999-2000$m (actual)||2000-01 $m (estimate)||2001-02 $m (estimate)||Total $m|
|Farm Forestry Program||- B||2.8||6.5||11.9||16.8||9.2||47.2|
|Murray-Darling 2001 Program||3.8||27.5||35.0||43.0||53.8||32.6||195.6|
|National Rivercare ProgramC||-||5.9||14.3||19.1||28.8||14.9||82.9|
|National River Health ProgramA||0.1||1.6||1.7||2.6||7.6||1.8||15.8|
|National Wetlands ProgramA||0.5||1.6||1.6||3.8||5.8||3.8||17.1|
|Endangered Species ProgramA||2.0||2.1||6.9||5.8||5.6||5.5||27.8|
|National Reserve System ProgramA||0.4||2.9||11.2||11.4||38.2||20.0||84.2|
|National Land & Water Resources Audit||1.3||2.4||11.8||9.8||13.7||5.4||44.4|
|National Feral Animal Control ProgramD||3.7||3.1||1.6||2.0||6.1||2.7||18.9|
|National Weeds ProgramD||2.1||1.3||1.6||0.9||17.8||4.8||28.5|
|National Landcare Program (including Landcare Tax measures)E||10.2||30.1||49.0||49.2||109.4||78.5||326.5|
|Farm Business Improvement Program: Farmbis||0.4||0.3||2.6||5.6||6.0||-||15.0|
|Coasts and Oceans|
|Coasts and Clean SeasA||-||8.6||20.2||28.1||35.4||24.4||116.8|
|Fisheries Action Program||-||1.7||2.2||3.2||3.8||2.1||13.0|
|Waste Management Awareness ProgramA||0.2||0.6||0.7||1.0||2.4||1.1||6.0|
|Air Pollution in Major CitiesA||1.3||1.5||2.4||2.9||6.3||4.1||18.5|
|World Heritage Area Management and UpkeepA||4.7||10.7||10.0||8.6||9.7||8.9||52.5|
A Programs managed by Environment Australia;
B Denotes nil;
C The National Rivercare Program includes funding for Fisheries Action Program freshwater activities;
D Programs managed jointly by Environment Australia and Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry - Australia;
E The National Landcare Program also receives funding from an appropriation under the Natural Resource Management (Financial Assistance) Act 1992;
F Australia's Oceans Policy commitment includes $30 million to come from consolidated revenue funds;
G Includes $123 million carryover from 1999-2000 to 2000-2001.
Source: Natural Heritage and Parks Division, Environment Australia.
|Advanced Property Management Planning||1||1 190||1||108||1||1 475|
|Air Pollution in Major Cities|
|Bushcare||17||836||543||30 931||86||6 028||216||27 454|
|Coastcare A||360||4 096||9||119||213||2 728|
|Coasts and Clean Seas||2||305||90||13 450||15||1 398||63||9 313|
|Endangered Species Program||2||184||53||1 739||15||1 344||42||3 323|
|Farm Forestry Program||1||89||39||3 328||1||273||24||3 176|
|Fisheries Action Program||11||184||1||11||14||589||5||352||24||686|
|Indigenous Management of Protected Areas||3||142||6||344||6||298|
|Invasive Species Program (EA)||2||48||7||116|
|Landcare Tax Credits|
|Murray-Darling 2001 Program||4||407||377||39 859||67||11 288|
|NHT World Heritage Program||94||9 992||85||19 728|
|National Feral Animal Control Program||6||922||2||106||5||183|
|National Land & Water Resources Audit||1||158|
|National Landcare Program||14||961||522||62 193||104||10 858||364||40 937|
|National Moorings Program||1||22||2||123|
|National Reserves Program||24||10 361||4||671||12||9 713|
|National River Health Program||2||417||5||347||1||149|
|National Rivercare Program||2||241||99||5 562||15||1 631||73||8 214|
|National Weeds Program||1||70||1||2 073||3||1 185|
|National Wetlands Program||4||251||29||2 084||15||894||13||574|
|Tasmanian Regional Forest Agreement|
|Tasmanian Strategic Natural Heritage Program|
|Waste Management Awareness Program||1||15||3||450||1||60|
|Waterwatch||7||394||28||1 267||9||529||18||1 199|
|Totals||70||3 628||3||316||2 329||189 272||324||27 341||1 268||142 219|
|Program||SA||Tas.||Vic.||WA||Nat.||Total projects||Total funding|
|Advanced Property Management Planning||1||780||1||372||1||1 757||6||5 682|
|Air Pollution in Major Cities||18||5 093||18||5 093|
|Bushcare||305||16 909||114||10 524||334||19 689||245||24 661||27||25 861||1887||162 893|
|Coastcare A||290||2 007||133||1 028||334||2 807||218||3 986||1557||16 771|
|Coasts and Clean Seas||33||3 223||59||7 242||44||6 144||53||5 192||15||2 261||374||48 528|
|Endangered Species Program||37||1 524||27||2 151||42||2 695||59||5 045||44||5 554||321||23 559|
|Farm Forestry Program||18||1 474||20||1 362||37||3 290||13||3 282||153||16 274|
|Fisheries Action Program||12||446||15||1 129||14||622||13||723||109||4 742|
|Indigenous Management of Protected Areas||9||562||6||324||4||146||8||593||42||2 409|
|Invasive Species Program (EA)||1||40||1||25||4||383||5||296||20||908|
|Landcare Tax Credits||1||499||1||499|
|Murray-Darling 2001||173||11 732||216||51 485||2||5 907||839||120 678|
|NHT World Heritage Program||29||1 417||21||15 315||53||2 151||282||48 603|
|National Feral Animal Control Program||2||496||5||947||9||912||5||494||14||1 735||48||5 795|
|National Land & Water Resources Audit||2||265||1||97||2||515||6||20 967||12||22 002|
|National Landcare Program||240||39 778||138||12 582||338||43 289||286||45 521||1||5 700||2007||261 819|
|National Moorings Program||1||56||1||9||1||75||1||136||7||421|
|National Reserves Program||14||2 778||6||775||16||1 752||38||5 128||3||87||117||31 265|
|National River Health Program||2||840||1||65||2||331||13||2 149|
|National Rivercare Program||27||2 388||65||6 539||34||3 769||73||9 005||388||37 349|
|National Weeds Program||1||35||5||410||11||3 773|
|National Wetlands Program||23||957||21||512||23||794||21||644||25||3 552||174||10 262|
|Riverworks Tasmania||37||7 916||37||7 916|
|Tasmanian Regional Forest Agreement||27||3 164||27||3 164|
|Tasmanian Strategic Natural Heritage Program||5||13 357||5||13 357|
|Waste Management Awareness Program||1||400||1||100||11||1 459||18||2 484|
|Waterwatch||8||1 043||16||1 077||8||1 383||6||1 024||5||499||105||8 415|
|Totals||1 302||89 074||765||87 081||1 532||141 270||1 160||109 336||187||80 482||8 940||870 019|
ACoastcare is jointly funded by the Commonwealth, through the Natural Heritage Trust, and the States and Northern Territory.
These total project costs are combined Commonwealth and State/NT funds
Source: Environment Australia
In 1999 to 2000, those projects under NHT funding and directly related to biodiversity conservation (the NRSP and the ESP) received a total of $17.2 million (Table 63). This amount has grown considerably since 1996 to 1997, although as a proportion of total NHT spending, has fallen to 5.7% after an outlay of 7.8% in 1998-99. Projections to 2001-02 indicate that this proportion will rise again to around 8.1% of total NHT funding.
New South Wales receives the most funding for biodiversity-related projects funded under the NHT with a total of 2329 projects receiving $189 million. Victoria and Queensland closely follow with around $142 million. Nationally, around $870 million has been spent on NHT projects with the National Landcare Program receiving the greatest funding.
Parks and conservation expenditure [BD Indicators 13.4 and 24.7]
Budget allocations to the prime nature conservation agency in each jurisdiction are one measure of expenditure. Total expenditure by parks and conservation services in each state (Table 65) shows that New South Wales has by far the largest budget at over $220 million. However, estimates of expenditure per person for each state reveals that although it has a small total budget, the Northern Territory has the largest expenditure per capita. Tasmania, with the smallest area and population, has the second highest expenditure per person on protected areas of all the states ($55.82 per head).
|Total expenditure ($000)||224 512||35 696||64 826||114 817||169 398||26 345||40 010|
|Population (No.)||6 342 000||190 000||1 487 000||4 661 000||3 456 000||472 000||1 831 000|
|Expenditure per person ($/head)||35.40||187.87||43.60||24.63||49.02||55.82||21.85|
Annual Reports for:A NSW NPWS (1999); B PWC of the Northern Territory;C National Parks and Botanic Gardens (1999), Department of Environment, Heritage and Aboriginal Affairs;D Parks Victoria (1999);E Environment Protection Agency (1999) (including the Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service);F Department of Primary Industries Water and Environment, National Parks and Public Land Management Services (1999);G Conservation and Land Management, Nature Conservation Division.
Source: ABS (1999c) and Annual Reports for state government agencies.
Within each jurisdiction, investment is spread across a range of activities. However, both in practice and as reflecting through reported budgets, these allocations are not comparable. For example, expenditure in some states and territories on research and law enforcement is recorded separately, while in others it is not. An example of the allocation of expenditure within a nature conservation agency is provided by the Northern Territory PWC. These data reveal that most of the expenses (42%) are incurred in park management (Table 66); scientific services account for 22% of total expenditure.
|Alice Springs Desert Park||3 290|
|Bushfire Protection||3 645|
|Community Service Obligation||2 825|
|Corporate Management||2 823|
|Park Management||15 111|
|Scientific Services||8 002|
Source: PWC (1999).