This is an issue under the Biodiversity theme of the Data Reporting System.
Humans use the ocean for transporting goods between settlements (ie shipping), and this activity can have a range of impacts on marine biodiversity. Oil and other pollutants, garbage and other debris, sewage, ballast water and even hot water from shipping discharged (intentionally or accidentally) from vessels can cause direct harm to marine life and consequential indirect harm to other species. Some marine species can also be harmed directly by impact with ships and ships’ hulls and propellers. Impacts of sonar and electrical discharges may also have some impacts on marine life. Marine species can also be inadvertently transported to new locations, on hulls and in ballast water, where they can be invasive to resident ecosystems. Coastal benthos ecosystems can be damaged by channel dredging for shipping.
- CO-27 Number, frequency, extent and volume of oil spills from all sources
Oil spills from all sources place pressure on marine biodiversity. Number, frequency, extent and volume of spills provides an indication of the intensity of this pressure.
- CO-32 Number of injuries to marine animals from marine debris
Shipping is one of the major sources of marine debris which places pressure on marine biodiversity.
- CO-50 Number of collisions with marine animals
Collisions between shipping and sea animals has the potential to place pressure on biodiversity. Number of recorded instances of collisions would give some idea of the extent of this pressure.
- CO-51 Quantity of sewerage and ballast water dumped by shipping
Ballast water and sewage from shipping has the potential to place pressure on marine biodiversity. Changes in estimated quantities of ballast water, sewage or other waste released into the ocean gives an idea of changes in the potential pressure from this source.
- CO-52 Evidence or examples of impacts of channel dredging for shipping on marine life
Dredging of channels for shipping has the potential to place pressure on marine biodiversity. No indicator has been developed for measuring or assessing the extent of this pressure or its actual impact on marine organisms.
- CO-53 Evidence or examples of noise or visual disturbance of marine species by human activities
Shipping is one source of visual and noise pollution with the potential to impact on biodiversity.
- CO-65 Correlation between various human activities and introduction of coastal and marine species
Shipping is a principal means whereby new species are introduced to marine areas. New species can potentially become invasive and impact on resident biodiversity.
- CO-67 Progress of the Australian shipping fleet towards meeting the targets of the International Convention on the control of harmful anti-fouling systems on ships
Toxic paints from shipping is a pressure on marine biodiversity. No indicator of the impact of anti-fouling paints across Australian ecosystems have been identified. However, proportion of shipping using such paints may be broadly indicative of the extent of the pressure.
- LD-40 Current research into pressures and contributions of naturalised introduced species
Shipping is a principal means whereby new species are introduced to marine areas. Research on new species be introduced by shipping may shed light on the potential pressure of these species on resident biodiversity.
- Coasts and Oceans - Direct pressure of human activities on coasts and oceans - Direct pressure of shipping
- Coasts and Oceans - Contributions of the coasts and oceans to human life - Medium for transportation
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