Uluru’s arid environment is home to a surprising number of plants, birds and animals. Habitats range from sand dunes and spinifex plains, to acacia scrubland and creek lines.
The park is in the Greater Sandy Desert bioregion of the Northern Territory. The Greater Sandy Desert bioregion has less than five per cent of its total area within protected areas - the park is one of only five reserves and plays a significant role in contributing to long-term biodiversity conservation in the region. Within the bioregion, the park is representative of a broad landform structure that is a recurring pattern in arid Central Australia. The Uluru-Kata Tjuta landscape is a representative cross-section of Central Australian arid ecosystems. The main ecological zones in the park are
- puli - rock faces and vegetated hill slopes
- puti - woodlands, particularly the mulga flats between sandhills
- tali and pila - sand dunes and sandplains
- karu - creek beds.